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art essay structure Tristanne Connolly, Department of English, St. Jerome's University. You can skip ahead to advice on: Essays usually begin with one introductory paragraph. Essay! The first section of this paragraph eases the reader in. You could be writing about anything at this point, so use your introduction to let readers know what you are writing about, and get them interested. Possible ways to do this are: Find a quotation that reflects your ideas, or sums up what you want to essay of internet for teenagers say in an interesting, snappy way.
You have a ready source for quotations in the piece of essay on importance of plea bargaining, literature you're writing about. If you take your quote from writing mystery story, another source, make it clear to the reader where it comes from: not just the of plea name of change time, who said it, but brief background, such as who that person is, and in what context it was said. Essay On Importance Bargaining! Also relate it clearly to the topic (and text) at hand. Give an example. Is there an especially interesting instance of essay, what you are writing about? Use it to pull the reader in.
Remember, though, that in the body of your essay you will be using examples to prove your point; this is a different kind of example, used only to bargaining introduce your point and healing intrigue your reader. Start with the general and essay of plea move to the specific--but not too general. Avoid the wound society today and essay of plea bargaining most people kind of generalization because they are often untrue and always uninteresting. Cons Of Wearing School Uniforms! (William Blake once wrote, To Generalize is to be an Idiot. Why? Because there is always an exception, and because the details or minute particulars you use to prove your general idea are where the essay on importance truth resides.) Give some background. Essay On World Population 2011! What does the reader need to know about your topic, not only to get interested, but as a basis for what you intend to say? Explain an issue. Why is essay of plea bargaining your topic important? What is at cons school uniforms stake? Offer a definition. Beware, just pulling a definition out of the dictionary can seem quite boring.
If you do, comment on it, put a twist on it, contest it; or, come up with your own definition for the purposes of your paper. Note that handbooks to literature can offer fruitful and even contestable definitions of of plea bargaining, literary terms and devices. Ask a question. This gets readers involved, inviting them to answer your question mentally. But keep control of the situation in case they answer in a way that doesn't serve your point.
When you use rhetorical questions in your essays, always make sure to answer them. Essay Change Over Time! Make a comparison. The thing you are writing about, what is essay on importance it like? Does your paper use comparisons that you can introduce right away? Is there a metaphor you can use to shed light on what you are saying? Tell a little story or anecdote related to love your topic. In very formal essays, this is the only place where you might be able to on importance bargaining get personal. Make sure your introductory story is not too long. If necessary, give it its own short paragraph and let the next paragraph do the job of the essay introduction. Of Plea Bargaining! Present a mystery. Make what you are writing about benefits of internet for teenagers, sound interesting and on importance bargaining complicated by addressing its contradictions, or its fascinating unknowns.
However, simply saying we will never know makes the reader feel as though you have no new insight to provide: go further and make some kind of essay population 2011, suggestion, even if it is tentative. Next, give a few transitional sentences to move from your hook or attention-getter to your thesis. A good thesis statement or main idea is the essay on importance bargaining key to a good essay. It is usually one sentence but can be two if necessary, and essay it is traditionally placed at the very end of your introduction (this is the of plea bargaining spot where teachers, grading stacks of papers, tend to look for benefits of internet for teenagers, it). It is the main thing you are trying to say or argue in your essay, and all of your body paragraphs will go to prove, support and elaborate on it. It is the pin that holds your essay together.
A topic is what your essay is about, while a thesis is your stand, your particular, focused statement or argument on on importance, that topic, the insight that all of your points come together to show. Here are some ways to improve thesis statements: Make sure your thesis makes a claim . Benefits For Teenagers! For instance, if you say there are many similarities and differences or this essay will address the characteristics of. , you could get more specific. What similarities and differences? What characteristics? What do they have in common? And what does it all mean? Are there any interesting contradictions involved, e.g., are there opposite bargaining characteristics working together, or characteristics that could have the opposite ten creative prompts mystery story effect? Make sure your thesis is not obviously true: a statement of fact or a clich.
Instead, can you put a new twist on an old idea, or contest received wisdom? You are not really proving anything if you are restating common knowledge. Make sure your thesis can be proven within the constraints of the assignment. Know what kind of evidence to use for essay on importance of plea bargaining, a particular assignment, and make sure your thesis fits. For instance, when you are writing a literary essay, you must make sure your main point focuses on the text itself, and can be supported by textual evidence, rather than some other kind, such as personal experience, or statistics. These might be helpful for some small points, but if they're necessary to the main idea, then it's no longer a literary essay. When your essay assignment requires research, you must make sure your point can be proven reliably using sources you are able to find.
Make sure your thesis is not based only on opinion. Particularly, judgments such as good or bad, true or false, are hard to prove for this reason. Could you say something about the significance of the topic instead? Or examine why you think something is change time true or false, good or bad? Iif you are automatically stating your opinion without considering it, you are not thinking very deeply and may be in the realm of clich.
Dealing with a text, think about essay of plea bargaining, how the writer seems to feel about the topic, and be aware that she or he may not agree with you (or even the essay benefits speakers in the text!). In all cases, question your assumptions. On Importance Bargaining! Imagine counterarguments and other views. Find out the reasons for modern, your opinion, and of plea bargaining that may lead you to a point you can explain and essay benefits prove. On Importance! Additionally, it will help you communicate with your reader, who may have a different point of view. Make sure your thesis is ten creative ideas focused: not too broad. Is your claim too general to be convincingly proven with a few examples? Try to define it: you do not need to account for on importance of plea bargaining, everyone or everything. Modern Essay! Can you develop your point and prove it within the page limit? Sometimes it is better to say more about essay on importance of plea, less.
You can pick one of the things you intended to address, or concentrate on one particular aspect of the topic. Essay Benefits! You will notice that most of these problems with main ideas can be solved by getting more specific and more analytical . Ask the questions, What exactly? and of plea bargaining What does it all mean? or What does it all teach us about ___? Complications can actually help you. If you come up against difficulties and contradictions in your thinking, don't sweep them under the essay carpet. Think about how you can turn them around to prove your point anyway, or think how you can use them to define your idea more precisely. The thesis must not only state a claim worth proving; it must also give the reader an idea of how you intend to develop your main idea. For instance, if you have three sub-points to your main idea, you can list them in brief in of plea bargaining the same order you will discuss them in your body paragraphs. Also, make sure that your main idea effectively ties together all three (or however many) of your sub-topics. What do they have in common? What makes them different?
The thesis is like a preview of your essay. This means that it helps a lot to have an on world idea of what you are going to say before you begin to write a first draft -- and that if your idea changes as you write and experiment, you should go back and change the thesis to fit. Essay On Importance! Do not save your main point for change over, your conclusion: essays are not suspense stories or poker games. Lay your cards on bargaining, the table in the introduction. However, remember that in your body paragraphs you will prove and expand on your main idea: the introduction shows exactly where you are going, and in the body paragraphs you go there. You can have as many body paragraphs as you wish. However many sub-topics you have to prove your thesis, that is how many body paragraphs you will have. You can place them in essay benefits of internet any order, so long as it makes sense.
For instance, you can: *place the strongest argument last. *move in chronological order. *move from causes to effects. *alternate: if you are writing about more than one thing, move back and forth between them. *chunk: if you are writing about more than one thing, write all about one then all about the other. On Importance Of Plea! Every body paragraph must have a topic sentence which is like a mini-thesis, and wound which is usually placed at of plea or near the beginning of the wound paragraph (indicating what you are going to prove), but can also come at of plea the end (indicating what you have just proven). Ten Creative Writing Prompts Story Ideas! The topic sentence expresses the essay bargaining main point this paragraph is benefits for teenagers out to demonstrate. Keeping aware of your topic sentences can help you make sure your paragraphs are well-developed . Give as much proof and explanation as you can for your sub-point in essay of plea each paragraph. Go into detail. Make sure in research every paragraph you: *offer some kind of evidence . For a textual or literary essay, your evidence will be specific references to the text along with logical argument and bargaining explanation of your interpretation. In a research essay, you will also include references to respectable scholarly work on the topic, not so much as evidence but as other voices in the debate over the text--you're having a written conversation with fellow scholars. Writing Ideas! *offer full explanation of how and essay on importance of plea bargaining why your evidence proves your point , and how and why that point relates back to your thesis. If any of your paragraphs are lacking either of these things, something is cons of wearing school uniforms wrong with them and they must be fixed. E.g., a paragraph that is all evidence or summary with no explanation indicates no brain work on your part: you need to analyze your evidence and explain what it means, particularly in relation to essay of plea your main idea.
Conversely, a paragraph that is all assertions gives the uniforms reader the impression you are talking through your hat. Essay readers will not take your word for it. If you are arguing something reasonable, you should be able to prove it, and if you don't it will look like you can't. For every assertion you make, give proof and explanation. Essay On Importance Of Plea! Topic sentences can also help you make sure your paragraphs are all unified . Each paragraph should be about only one thing . Modern Love! If there is on importance bargaining any sentence in a paragraph which is not on topic, it should either be moved to essay for teenagers the paragraph where it belongs, or thrown out. If nothing in the paragraph can be clearly related to your essay's main idea, the on importance bargaining whole paragraph has to go. Your body paragraphs must all work to prove your thesis: this makes your essay coherent . To assure your reader that your essay is coherent or hangs together, you need to have smooth transitions between paragraphs. A formulaic way to move from essay on world population, one paragraph to the next is to say something like, Another example. Essay Of Plea! or The third point is. , but this is very mechanical and so doesn't have the research papers finesse of an A paper! Using such formulae is handy for a first draft, but as you improve your paper, try to replace mechanical transitions with more interesting ones. Essay On Importance Of Plea! Think about the ideas you are trying to express: what do they have in common?
What is the mystery ideas difference between the of plea last idea and this one? You can use the similarities and differences to compose interesting transition sentences which help you show why you decided to organize your paper the way you did, and also give more significance to your points. Handy comparison and contrast words can assist you here: (of course you will fill in population 2011 the details!) Although/While this last idea is like this, this next idea is like that; This last idea is like this, and this new idea is on importance of plea also/similarly like this with these important differences or further details. You can also use time sequence (e.g. Next/Meanwhile ), or cause and effect (e.g. Consequently/If. Essay! then ). The conclusion of an essay wraps things up. It reiterates the main idea in different words, and looks back over on importance of plea how the thesis was proven. This is not just repetition: it gives you an opportunity to show how you have developed your idea, to indicate what the reader has learned by reading your essay. As well as summing up , the conclusion should leave the prompts story reader satisfied that the time it took to read the essay was well spent.
So, remember Miles Davis and answer the essay of plea bargaining question, So What? Why is all this important? What are the implications of what you have argued? What does it mean in the big world? As in your introduction, though, be careful not to over-generalize , making a claim that your essay is more important than it is or has proven more than it has. No new information should be offered in love the conclusion; only the ideas already presented, seen in of plea a new light. Some ways to put a sting in the tail of your essay: Quotation. Find one that reflects or sums up your point in a clever and memorable way. Figurative language. Metaphors and images can leave a striking idea or picture in writing ideas the reader's mind, and you can use them to elaborate on your insight.
Especially if you use one in bargaining the introduction, bring it up again and see how you can use it a bit differently. Example or anecdote. Essay Benefits Of Internet For Teenagers! A brief story or example can make the implications of your point more vivid, and essay on importance bargaining place your ideas in a wider context. Predictions or speculations. What follows from what you have argued? Make sure you don't speculate too far; stick to what seems plausible from what you said previously. And a finishing touch: a great title. A good title is not too vague, yet not too long either. Research Papers! A good way to think about it is, if a person were trying to find articles on your topic in a database, would your title have enough of the right keywords to pop up? Be sure to mention the text and/or author you're writing about, and include words which reveal something about the main drift of your argument.
These are the mechanics of an appropriate title; of course, you also want it to be interesting. A unique or clever turn of phrase can do this for you. You can also take a short phrase from the text which you think particularly relates to what you have to say, and place it before your main title, with a colon to on importance of plea bargaining connect them. Here's an example. Wild Ecstasies and benefits for teenagers Sober Pleasure: The Relationship between William and Dorothy Wordsworth in essay on importance of plea Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey
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Plea Bargaining Essay - 647 Words | Bartleby
Christianity and the History of Technology. Longform version of a six-part series on Christianity and the history of on importance of plea, technology. Since the of wearing, mid-twentieth century, there has been a sustained, if modest, scholarly conversation about the relationship between technology and religion. Among scholars who have specifically addressed the nature of this relationship, research has focused on the following set of concerns: religion’s role in of plea, determining Western society’s posture toward the natural world, religions’s role in abetting technological development, religion’s role in shaping Western attitudes toward “labor and labor’s tools,” and, more recently, the use of religious language and categories to describe technology. The majority of these studies focus almost exclusively on of wearing essay, European and essay on importance of plea, North American context and so “religion” amounts to Christianity.
Jacques Ellul, Lynn White, George Ovitt, Susan White, David Noble, and Bronislaw Szerszynski have been among the more notable contributors to this conversation. Jacques Ellul’s comments are the earliest, but they do not set the terms of the debate. That honor falls to Lynn White who in his 1968 essay, “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,” first proposed that Europe’s relationship to technology had been distinctly shaped by the Christian worldview. Scholars have repeatedly returned to further scrutinize this thesis and its ecological frame. George Ovitt’s The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture remains the most thorough treatment of the nexus of questions generated by White’s essay. Ten Creative Writing Mystery Story Ideas. Ovitt concludes that there is good reason to significantly qualify White’s claims. Susan White’s study, Christian Worship and Technological Change , stands apart as a consideration of essay on importance bargaining, technology’s influence on Christian liturgy. David Noble builds on the work of cons uniforms essay, White and essay of plea bargaining, Ovitt to offer an account of what he terms “the religion of essay, technology” which amounts to a pervasive intermingling of religious concerns with the essay on importance, project of technology as a well as a tendency to link the quest for transcendence to of internet for teenagers technology.
Finally, Bronislaw Szerszynski’s Nature, Technology, and essay on importance of plea, the Sacred offers a theoretically sophisticated reconsideration of White’s argument which, with respect to the technological character of contemporary society, embraces Ellul’s diagnosis of technological society. Szerszynski also moves the argument out of the medieval period to argue that the really decisive transformations in the intellectual and religious context of Europe’s technological history should be located in the Protestant Reformation. Jacques Ellul: A-technical Christianity. Ellul’s The Technological Society was first published in French in 1954 and the first English translation appeared in 1964. Essay. Within the essay of plea bargaining, brief historical sketch Ellul provides of the evolution of technique, he examines the relationship between Christianity and technology. In Ellul’s estimation, Christianity as it was practiced through the late Medieval period was at best ambivalent to the advance of technology.
He recognizes that received opinion contrasts the Eastern religions, which were supposedly “passive, fatalist, contemptuous of life and action” with Christianity, the for teenagers, religion of the West, which was supposedly “active, conquering, turning nature to profit.” Although this characterization was widely accepted, Ellul believed it to be in error. It both ignored the real technical advances of Eastern civilizations and misunderstood the posture of Christianity to technical development. According to Ellul, the emergence of Christianity marked the “breakdown of on importance of plea, Roman technique in every area — on the level of ten creative story, organization as well as in the construction of on importance bargaining, cities, in industry, and in transport.” In his view, Julian the modern love, Apostate, and later Gibbon, were not altogether mistaken in attributing the withering of the Empire to rise of the essay on importance of plea, Church. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, a society emerged under the tutelage of Christianity, which Ellul characterized as “‘a-capitalistic’ as well as ‘a-technical.’” In every sphere of Medieval culture save architecture Ellul sees “the same nearly total absence of technique.” Ellul goes on to challenge the essay change over time, two historical arguments employed by those who believed that Christianity “paved the way for technical development.” According to the first, Christianity’s suppression of slavery gave impetus to the development of technology to relieve the miseries of manual labor. According to the second, Christianity’s disenchantment of the natural world removed metaphysical and psychological obstacles to its technologically enabled exploitation. The former fails to account for the impressive technical achievements of slave societies, and the latter, while valid to a certain extent, ignores the other strictures Christian faith placed on technical activity, namely its other-worldly and ascetic tendencies.
Additionally, Christianity subjected all activity to moral judgment. Accordingly, technical activity was bounded by on importance non-technical considerations. It is within this “narrow compass” that certain technical advances were achieved and propagated by the monasteries. Lynn White: Christianity and wound healing papers, the Cultural Climate of Technological Advance. In his classic essay, “The Historical Roots of essay on importance, Our Ecological Crisis,” Lynn White, Jr. staked out a position that departed from Ellul at almost every conceivable point. White begins by describing the gap in cons school uniforms, technical achievement that opened up between Western Europe and on importance of plea bargaining, both Islamic and Byzantine civilizations to the the cons uniforms essay, east. This gap predated the “Scientific Revolution” of the sixteenth century and on importance bargaining, was already evident by the late Middle Ages. Modern. Consequently, White turns to the Middle Ages to understand the nature of Western technology. Although White is at this stage in his career moving from the on importance of plea bargaining, single-factor approach to technological change, elements of the approach are still evident in the “The Historical Roots of of wearing school uniforms essay, Our Ecological Crisis” in which he points to the introduction of the heavy plow as catalyst for on importance of plea bargaining changing attitudes about humanity’s relationship to nature.
In White’s words, the heavy plow “attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed.” White also notes that this new attitude of modern love essay, domination was soon given pictorial expression in Frankish calendars which depicted man and nature in opposition with man as master. At this juncture in the essay, however, White shifts from essay a single technological factor analysis of social change to a consideration of the cultural influences that conditioned the development and deployment of technology in adversarial relationship to nature. White finds the Christian religion, as practiced in Western Europe, to be the chief culprit. “Especially in ten creative writing prompts mystery ideas, its Western form,” White concludes, “Christianity is the bargaining, most anthropocentric religion the world has seen.” After briefly recalling the well known plot points and language of the creation narrative in the opening chapter of the book of Genesis, White contrasts Christianity to population ancient paganism and the Eastern religions and finds that Christianity “not only established a dualism of man and nature but also insisted that it is God’s will that man exploit nature for on importance his proper ends.” Christianity accomplished this “psychic revolution” by disenchanting nature, making it “possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects.” White, then, affirms the second argument Ellul dismissed in his analysis of the relationship between Christianity and nature. He surmounts one of Ellul’s criticisms — that eastern branches of Christianity did not yield the same relationship to essay for teenagers nature and thus religion is not the key factor — by pointing to the significant differences in theological outlook that characterized the on importance of plea, activist Latin churches in ten creative prompts mystery story, the West and of plea bargaining, the contemplative Greek churches of the East. Ellull had noted the difference, taking the Russian Orthodox Church as his case in point, but he concluded that the difference must be cultural and not religious. While the cultural shaping of ancient Christianity should not be overlooked, the fact remains that by the Middle Ages both Eastern and wound research, Western Christianity had taken on their distinct shape and essay on importance bargaining, were now, as culturally inflected variations of the same religion, shaping the intellectual climate of their respective societies. Furthermore, White also strengthens the essay population, argument by of plea bargaining pointing to the sacramental vision of eastern Christianity. Essay. Nature existed as a system of signs to be read and through which God spoke to on importance bargaining humanity. This was, in White’s view, an “essentially artistic rather than scientific” view of nature.
While the West initially shared this sacramental vision, by the late Medieval period it had given way to a natural theology more inclined to “read” nature by understanding the workings of 2011, nature rather than merely contemplating its appearance. (Bronislaw Szerszynsk will later take up this semiotic argument in depth.) The rhetorical frame of White’s article concerns itself with the sources of “the present ecological crisis,” but the body of his argument addresses itself to another question: What accounts for the advance of Western technology beyond its civilizational rivals? White’s essay, while initially gesturing toward a single-factor account of technological change, on on importance of plea, the whole points toward a social factors approach focusing on Latin Christianity as the force driving the evolution of western European technology. Essay Change. By so doing, it set the terms and became a key point of of plea bargaining, departure for subsequent discussion of religion’s relationship to change time technology. Most notably, it anchored the debate in the Middle Ages, it pointed to the cultural significance of seemingly arcane theological distinctions, it identified Christianity as the most important cultural factor driving technological activity in the West, and essay on importance of plea, it linked the historical question to papers environmental concerns. Lynn White further developed his thesis in a long 1971 article, “Cultural Climates and on importance of plea, Technological Advance in the Middle Ages,” in which he directly set out to identify the sources of the unprecedented “technological thrust of the medieval West.”
White begins by discussing medieval Europe’s propensity for borrowing and elaborating on love essay, technologies initially developed in other societies. The culture of medieval Europe “was unique in the receptivity of its climate to transplants” and this accounts in bargaining, part for the vigor of medieval technological output. However, this receptivity is cons of wearing essay, itself in need of explanation and in response White reaffirms the logic of “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis”: “What a society does about on importance of plea bargaining technology is on world population, influenced by casual borrowings from other cultures, although the extent and uses of these borrowings are reciprocally affected by attitudes toward technological change. Essay On Importance Of Plea. Fundamentally, however, such attitudes depend upon what people in change over time, a society think about essay their personal relation to nature, their destiny, and how it is good to act. These are religious questions.” In what follows, White amplifies and augments the lines of argument adumbrated in the earlier essay while also drawing out additional lines of evidence in support of cons of wearing essay, his thesis. The seminal work of medieval historian Ernst Benz, whose writing on the subject had appeared in essay of plea, Italian in 1964 and was presented in English in 1966, is introduced into White’s argument for the first time. Benz’s study of Zen Buddhism’s “anti-technological impulses” led him to locate Western Europe’s embrace of technological change in its religious outlook. He pointed to Christianity’s linear conception of history, its presentation of healing research, God as architect and potter, its theological affirmation of the goodness of material creation, and its presupposition of the “intelligent craftsmanship” of the created order — all in essay, his view unique to change time Christianity — as the components of what White terms a “cultural climate” remarkably hospitable to technological advance.
White affirms the of plea bargaining, contours of Benz analysis, but he finds room for improvement. Ten Creative Story Ideas. Drawing on two articles independently published in 1956, White once again points to the disenchantment of nature supposedly accomplished by Christianity’s cultural triumph over ancient paganism. He also reaffirms and further develops the importance of the distinction between Latin and Eastern Christianity. Here White strengthens his earlier observations by drawing on iconographic and textual evidence. Beginning shortly after the turn of the first Christian millennium, Western iconography depicts God in the act of creation as a builder, master craftsman, and essay on importance of plea, later a mechanic — it was a visual tradition never adopted in essay for teenagers, the Eastern churches. Exegetically, White points to the Western and Eastern interpretations of the essay, story of Martha and Mary in Luke’s gospel. Essay Time. While a surface reading suggests an endorsement of contemplation over activism, Latin interpreters, beginning with Augustine, go out of their way to soften and even reverse the apparent critique of activism and labor. With this White then draws in what will become another key locus of attention in subsequent discussions of technology and Christianity: the attitude toward labor in the monastic orders, particularly the Benedictines. White notes that in essay bargaining, the Byzantine world, which, unlike the West, did not suffer a general collapse of culture, the religious orders were not forced to bear the burden of sustaining all aspects of wound healing, civilization, secular and religious. In the West, however, following the essay on importance of plea, collapse of Roman authority, the religious orders, notably the Benedictines, found themselves in the position of performing both religious and secular duties, of modern love essay, uniting worship and labor. This commitment to labor and the mechanical arts would, in White’s view, generate a uniquely religious impetus for the development of technology.
White supports his contention by essay bargaining drawing on the work of the pseudonymous Theophilus and Hugh of Saint Victor. Theophilus’ work, dating from the early 12th century, provides an indispensable record of the era’s technological knowledge while attesting to the religiously motivated technical innovation that White takes to be characteristic of the on world 2011, age. Meanwhile, Theophilus’ contemporary, Hugh of Saint Victor incorporated the essay of plea, mechanical arts into his influential classification of knowledge and the arts. While the mechanical arts were accorded the lowest place in the hierarchical ranking of the arts, they were nonetheless included and this was no small thing. Together, the wound, work of essay on importance of plea, Theophilus and Hugh supported White’s thesis regarding Western Christianity’s role in shaping Europe’s technological surge in cons of wearing uniforms essay, the Middle Ages.
White concludes with one more corroborating piece of iconographic evidence. An illustration of Psalm 63 in the Utrecht Psalter dating from the mid-ninth century features a confrontation by between King David and the Righteous and a much larger force of the ungodly. While the ungodly use a whetstone to sharpen their sword, the godly employ “the first crank recorded outside China to rotate the first grindstone known anywhere.” Clearly, White concludes, “the artist is telling us that technological advance is God’s will.” While “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” is cited more often and is more frequently taken as a point of departure, it is in “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages” that White most persuasively argues the case for Christianity’s formative influence on the history of technology in Western society. With its inclusion of Ernst Benz’ research and its discussion of Benedictine spirituality, this essay frames the research agenda for subsequent research and discussion.
George Ovitt: Challenging the Lynn White Thesis. George Ovitt’s The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture , published in 1987, provides the essay on importance of plea bargaining, first book length treatment of the major themes advanced in essay on world 2011, White’s thesis. Ovitt, who in of plea, his preface pays appropriate academic homage to essay White, sets out to explore more fully the claims made on behalf of Christian faith and practice in relation to medieval attitudes toward technology. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining. Ovitt’s analysis is also deeply influenced by Max Weber and Lewis Mumford’s application of Weberian insights to Benedictine monasticism. Finally, Ovitt also tests the alternative claims made by Jacques Le Goff in his 1980 evaluation of medieval attitudes toward labor and school uniforms, technological development. Against White’s thesis, Le Goff argued that shifting theological attitudes toward labor and of plea bargaining, technology followed upon rather than instigated transformations in economic and material conditions. In addition to his evaluation of prior scholarship, Ovitt also contributes a chapter on the medieval and Christian roots of the notion of progress. The notion of progress becomes another important semantic net that catches significant elements of the relationship of religion and technology.
Ovitt concludes that early Christian writers, and their medieval heirs, acknowledged material progress and human sovereignty over nature, but these were linked inextricably to moral progress and “the striving for sovereignty over the more intractable self.” Notions of progress, in other words, were not yet, as they later would be, reduced to or considered equivalent to technical progress. In this, as in countless other ways, the Western medieval church took its cue from Augustine whose view of the mechanical arts can best be labeled as ambiguous. Turning specifically to the claims advanced by ten creative prompts ideas White and Benz, Ovitt chooses to bargaining test them by conducting an extensive review of the medieval period’s hexaemeral literature, i.e., commentaries on the six days of creation. His review of this literature leads Ovitt to substantially qualify both Benz’s claims regarding the image of God as craftsman and White’s suggestion that Christian theology sanctioned a rapacious posture toward nature.
Ovitt finds that while there is ample evidence of the portrayals of God as craftsman in the hexaemeral literature of the Latin Church, it is balanced by the continued portrayal of God as a detached and transcendent Creator — a portrayal shared with the Eastern Church — which appears just as frequently as the image of God as craftsman. Additionally, Ovitt suggests that when the image of God as craftsman is employed, it often suggests that as the benefits of internet for teenagers, finished products of the craftsman’s hand are often put to uses contrary to the craftsman’s intentions, so too the work of God’s hands, namely humanity, often rebels against the intentions of the essay on importance of plea, Creator. Regarding, White’s thesis, Ovitt follows earlier critics in questioning whether, on the one hand, White has adequately described the biblical data and its theological elaboration, and, on the other, whether such a direct, causal connection could in any case be reasonably drawn between a religious perspective and the cultural consensus. Ovitt’s research additionally suggests that the more common depiction of humanity’s relationship to creation is better understood as one of custodianship or stewardship rather than unbridled exploitation. Moreover, Ovitt points out that the idea that nature exists to be used by human beings does not by itself explain the essay, uses to which it is put.
Ovitt approvingly cites Mumford’s suggestion that it was not until Francis Bacon’s introduction of “‘a power-hungry technical mentality’ that the West took off on essay bargaining, the self-destructive course it now follows.” Moreover, if we look for the “direct result of the medieval Christian ethic of domination” we find “a long-lived tradition of craftsmanship and subsistence farming” — “democratic polytechnics,” in healing research papers, Mumford’s terms, rather than “authoritarian megatechnics.” The “really significant question for the histoiry [sic] of bargaining, technology” in Ovitt’s view, “is not what Christianity taught about the domination of nature, but what Christianity taught about the ten creative mystery story ideas, domination of human beings by other human beings.” And with this Ovitt turns to consider medieval social and education systems, specifically the practice of labor in the monastic orders and essay of plea, the place of the change over, mechanical arts in on importance, medieval classifications of knowledge. Regarding the former, Ovitt indeed finds that the monastic tradition, in both its eremitic and cenobitic manifestations, upheld the fundamental dignity and spiritual usefulness of love, labor. Moreover, Ovitt finds the Rule of St. Benedict to be the most “effective reconciliation” of the spiritual needs of the individual and the economic needs of the community. Most importantly, he concludes that contrary to the later logic of capitalism, the significance of labor did not reside in “its products or uses of technology and essay, invention quantitatively as a means of enhancing productivity,” rather it resided in the “process of labor” which was aimed at personal holiness and communal self-sufficiency. Ovitt reasonably concludes that a Weberian analysis of monasticism’s role in incubating incipient capitalism as well as fostering a peculiarly Western enthusiasm for technology should be balanced by the spirit of essay benefits of internet, Augustine’s prayer — “O Lord, I am working hard in this field, and the field of my labors is my own self” — which expressed the dominant medieval priorities. In his survey of medieval classifications of knowledge, particularly that of Hugh of Saint Victor in the twelfth century and Thomas Aquinas’ in the thirteenth, Ovitt finds a generally positive estimation of the mechanical arts even while they retain the lowest rank among the various arts. In his estimation, more than their admission into the theologians’ classifications of knowledge was needed to generate the particular enthusiasm for technology that would come to distinguish Western society.
What was needed was the decoupling of “labor, and labor’s tools from the bargaining, realm of the sacred and the control of theologians” and wound papers, a renewed interest in judging technology by its products rather than its effects on the spiritual lives of its users. This would be achieved, ironically, by the Gregorian Reform movement originating within the church which sought to clarify the respective roles of the church and the state. In so doing, the church sanctioned a three-fold division of essay of plea bargaining, society including those who ruled and fought, those who labored, and wound research papers, those who prayed. This division tacitly endorsed the separation of labor from the purview of the church and created the space for technology to evolve apart from moral and spiritual constraints or considerations. Contrary to essay White, then, Ovitt suggests that Christianity’s chief contribution to the evolution of distinctly Western attitudes to technology may have been its stepping out of the way as it were.
Ovitt’s study significantly complicates the historical arguments made by Benz and on world population 2011, White as well as Ellul’s earlier summary of Christianity’s relationship to technique. The total picture is on the whole more ambiguous than the work of any of these scholars would lead readers to believe. Essay Of Plea. Medieval attitudes toward nature, labor, and the mechanical arts were on on world population 2011, the whole positive but hardly enthusiastic. More importantly, Ovitt convincingly showed that technical considerations were, as one might expect, consistently subordinated to essay of plea spiritual ends as demonstrated by change over time the Benedictine’s willingness to lay aside labor when it became possible to essay bargaining commission a lesser order of lay brothers or even paid laborers to essay perform the work necessitated by the community. Ovitt’s work has appropriately taken its place beside that of White as a major contribution to the scholarly exploration of the relationship of medieval Christianity to Western technology. If we are to find the sources of western enthusiasm for technology it is necessary to begin with medieval Christianity, but after Ovitt’s thorough work it is no longer possible to end there. Susan White: Technology and bargaining, Liturgy. In 1994, Cambridge scholar Susan J. Essay Change Time. White, published a study entitled Christian Worship and on importance of plea, Technological Change . White’s study reverses the direction of the inquiry by asking not about the 2011, effect of bargaining, Christianity on the evolution of technology, but about the consequences of technology for Christian worship. Of Wearing School Uniforms. In providing the essay on importance of plea bargaining, rationale for her study, White cited the earlier work of benefits, Ellul, Lynn White, Mumford, and Ovitt exploring the complex relationship between Christianity and technology. In her most compelling chapter, White discusses the essay, role of astronomical technology — the astrolabe, the albion, and the rectangulus — in refining the Christian liturgical calendar which had been in acknowledged disarray as well as the role of the mechanical clock in recalibrating the rhythms of the liturgy. On these points, however, White is mostly following the essay on world, earlier work of bargaining, Mumford and Lynn White.
Thus her noting the contrast between Eastern Orthodoxy’s longstanding rejection of the mechanical clock and its quick embrace in essay benefits of internet for teenagers, the western churches, a point also registered by Lynn White. In a subsequent chapter, “Liturgy and Mechanization,” White takes an approach that resonates with Ellul’s articulation of technique , noting how transformations in Christian liturgical practice during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were often inspired by the goals and bargaining, logic of machine technology. In her analogy, liturgy became a form of mechanistic technology. Susan White’s work is useful for its reframing of the question regarding technology and Christianity in light of technology’s influence on the religion. Her work is especially helpful for those who have never considered the consequences of technological change on liturgical practice. She does not, however, advance the debate initiated by Lynn White regarding the relationship between Christianity and western technology. In 1997, however, historian David F. Noble’s The Religion of of wearing school, Technology raised the question again with renewed vigor. David Noble: The Religion of Technology.
Noble describes “a thousand-year old Western tradition in which the advance of the useful arts was inspired by and grounded upon religious expectation.” Moreover, Noble claims that technology and faith “are merged, and always have been, the technological enterprise being, at the same time, an essentially religious endeavor.” Noble insists that this is not a metaphorical claim, but rather literally true: “modern technology and religion have evolved together …, and as a result, the technological enterprise has been and remains suffused with religious belief.” In the end, however, it is of plea bargaining, difficult to isolate what exactly Noble has identified through his discussion of monasticism, millenarianism, Baconian enthusiasm, Free Masonry, and the twentieth century technologies of transcendence including the atomic bomb, space flight, artificial intelligence, and of internet for teenagers, biotechnology. Noble has, from one angle, uncovered the history of an alternative religion, the on importance of plea bargaining, religion of technology, which might be best understood as a Christian heresy with an immanentized eschatology. He builds on the work of essay, White, Benz, and Ovitt to argue for a major transformation in Christianity’s view of the mechanical arts around the eleventh century, and, in his estimation, it was during this period that technological progress came to be equated with progress toward the material restoration of the created order. It was this faith in technological progress that would henceforth characterize the core of the bargaining, “religion of healing research, technology.” From another angle, though, Noble has only of plea shown that religious language and essay on world, religious aspirations are frequently associated with technology, particularly by the elite practitioners that are driving the development and deployment of new technology. Essay On Importance Of Plea. Any effort to arrive at a more clearly defined conclusion would falter under close examination since Noble has brought together a remarkably diverse collection of evidence and has not drawn very precise causal relationships. Instead, his method is to drive home a general sense of technology and essay, religion’s entanglement by citing as many plausible instances of the essay, claim as possible. Noble’s slippage between of the use of “faith” and “religion” is indicative of the general nature of his claims. It is also problematic that Noble’s borrowings from Benz, White, and Ovitt give no indication that there is any underlying tension in their respective accounts of Christianity’s relationship with technology.
For example, although he is cons school uniforms, clearly familiar with Ovitt’s work, he approvingly cites White’s thesis in “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” without qualification. Moreover his deployment of theological terminology in the opening chapter does not inspire confidence in his grasp of nuance in the relevant theological literature. But Noble is essay of plea bargaining, less interested in joining that debate than he is in love essay, registering a more general complaint. Noble is clearly concerned about the religious hopes for on importance of plea bargaining transcendence that have been repeatedly attached to new technologies throughout the history of Western society. In his view, this tendency clouds our ability to essay on world 2011 think clearly about technology, a problem that grows all the more acute as our technologies evolve into more complex, and potentially dangerous realities. In the end we may say that Noble has established the presence of essay, a religious veneer that frequently appears on the surface of cons school, technology to influence its development and adoption without clarifying or systematizing the varieties, sources, and consequences of that veneer. Bronislaw Szerszynski: Technology, Nature, and bargaining, the Sacred. In his 2005 book, Nature, Technology, and the Sacred , Bronislaw Szerszynski traces the evolving understandings of nature and the sacred in order to provide an alternative account of secularization and disenchantment, two processes in which technology has traditionally been assigned a critical role. To begin with, he argues that the best way to understand the evolution of ideas about nature from pre-modern to modern societies is, in fact, not as a process of secularization or disenchantment, but rather as a process of depersonalization. The advent of Christianity did not, as Lynn White (among others) suggested, simply empty nature of its metaphysical content leaving it vulnerable to exploitation.
Rather, Christianity removed personal agencies that inhabited nature and replaced them with a semiotic layer of meaning. Nature became alive, not with minor deities and spirits, but with meaning that could be allegorically interpreted. This conception of nature as a religiously meaningful system of signs acted as a brake on the potential exploitation of healing research papers, nature that White and others imagined following on the Christian triumph over the pagan worldview. However, the Protestant Reformation, in Szerszynski’s view, did lead to a situation like that imagined by of plea White when it collapsed all meanings and interpretations to the level of the literal and effectively contained them in the text of the modern, Bible. In this way, the semiotic cloak that had protected nature was pulled back leaving it defenseless against the advances of science and technology. The Reformation was decisive, but it did not act alone in reconfiguring the economy of the sacred in relation to nature. In the on importance of plea bargaining, late twelfth century, conceptions of nature were already beginning to shift owing to the growing influence of voluntarist theology that privileged the unrestrained will and power of God over the potential intelligibility of the created order. Nonetheless, Szerszynski follows Ellul and Ovitt against White in taking medieval Christianity’s attitude toward technology and research, nature to be mostly ambivalent and not by itself the cause of the Western technological mindset. Even the Reformation, in Szerszynski’s view, did not entirely free technology from essay moral and modern love, religious constraints. Essay Of Plea. The beginnings of this rupture are best traced to Francis Bacon’s privileging of techne over essay on world 2011, epistme . From this point Szerszynski traces a straight line to the evolution Ellul’s technological society. At this juncture, Szerszynski introduces David Nye’s exploration of the essay of plea, technological sublime to reinforce his conclusion that by the nineteenth century technology commanded near religious reverence.
This religious reverence, however, “echoes” the earlier voluntarist transformation in the theological conception of God: technology, like the voluntarist God was to be “loved for itself, apart from its fitness for human life and purpose.” Combined with the uniforms essay, rise of bio-power documented by Michel Foucault which focused narrowly on the preservation and governance of biological life this meant that all transcendent frames of reference that might have limited technology’s influence were now effectively displaced. As Noble noted, technology itself became the object of transcendent aspirations. Following Lynn White, the examination of Christianity’s relationship to technology has been firmly anchored in the Medieval period. With the exception of Szerszynski, none of the authors under consideration extensively explored the significance of the Reformation to the history of technology and Szerszynski’s work was thin on essay, historical sources. More work is needed on the Reformation and its relationship to technology. Of course, much work has already been done on the Reformation and the history of one particular technology, the printing press. Research has thus far also been focused on the role of Christianity in the emergence of Western technology. It seems that more careful and serious work ought to be done on the way that technology has shaped Christianity. Susan White gestured in this direction, but her work was largely derivative of the studies undertaken by Lynn White and Lewis Mumford and was focused on only a handful of illustrative cases.
Joseph Corn, whose work was not discussed above, has shown the importance of exploring religion’s role in the social construction of particular technologies. On World. Corn’s The Winged Gospel offers a case study in the social construction of the airplane. Drawing on a wide array of sources including newspapers, popular and professional journals, memoirs, and an assortment of essay of plea bargaining, varied cultural ephemera, Corn makes his case for the religious dimensions of the airplane’s social construction. The airplane was initially greeted by Thomas-like doubt that demanded sight in order to believe, and was thereafter frequently described with language that appealed to the supernatural — flight was a miracle. Love Essay. Additionally, the on importance bargaining, use of the airplane and its celebration was often marked by ritual and ceremony that bore a striking resemblance to for teenagers elements of essay bargaining, Christian worship and practice. Change Time. Finally, attitudes toward the airplane took on of plea bargaining, the character of a “technological messianism,” a faith in the power of the essay benefits, airplane to bring about a nearly eschatological reordering of society. In the end, of course, these hopes are reigned in by reality. Similar narrow studies focused on particular technologies and the role religious belief played in their social construction would strengthen our understanding of the relationship between technology and religion which thus far has been treated in essay on importance bargaining, mostly broad strokes. Finally, religious studies can also provide a helpful set of categories for understanding the role of technology in society, particularly given the pervasive interrelationship of technology and religion as documented by change over time Noble. Ritual studies, for example, may usefully augment our understanding of the intersections of technology use and essay on importance bargaining, embodied practice. David Nye’s incorporation of Durkheimian categories in his study of the technological sublime provides a helpful model for what this interdisciplinary exchange of methods can accomplish.
Christianity and the History of Technology, Part Three. This is the cons school essay, third in of plea bargaining, a series of posts discussing the work of a handful of scholars exploring the historical relationship between Christianity and technology. First and second post. Lynn White further developed his thesis in a long 1971 article, “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages,” in which he directly set out to research identify the sources of the unprecedented “technological thrust of the medieval West.” White begins by discussing medieval Europe’s propensity for borrowing and elaborating on technologies initially developed in other societies. The culture of medieval Europe “was unique in the receptivity of its climate to transplants” and this accounts in part for the vigor of medieval technological output. However, this receptivity is itself in need of essay of plea bargaining, explanation and in response White reaffirms the logic of “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis”: “What a society does about cons uniforms essay technology is influenced by casual borrowings from other cultures, although the extent and uses of bargaining, these borrowings are reciprocally affected by attitudes toward technological change. Fundamentally, however, such attitudes depend upon what people in a society think about their personal relation to nature, their destiny, and healing research papers, how it is good to act.
These are religious questions.” In what follows, White amplifies and augments the lines of argument adumbrated in the earlier essay while also drawing out additional lines of evidence in support of essay, his thesis. Essay Of Internet. The seminal work of essay on importance, medieval historian Ernst Benz, whose writing on essay, the subject had appeared in Italian in 1964 and essay on importance of plea, was presented in English in 1966, is introduced into White’s argument for the first time. Benz’s study of Zen Buddhism’s “anti-technological impulses” led him to locate Western Europe’s embrace of technological change in its religious outlook. He pointed to Christianity’s linear conception of history, its presentation of God as architect and potter, its theological affirmation of the goodness of material creation, and its presupposition of the “intelligent craftsmanship” of the created order — all in his view unique to Christianity — as the components of what White terms a “cultural climate” remarkably hospitable to wound research technological advance. White affirms the contours of Benz analysis, but he finds room for improvement. Drawing on two articles independently published in 1956, White once again points to the disenchantment of nature supposedly accomplished by Christianity’s cultural triumph over of plea, ancient paganism. Benefits For Teenagers. He also reaffirms and essay on importance of plea, further develops the importance of the distinction between Latin and Eastern Christianity. Here White strengthens his earlier observations by drawing on iconographic and textual evidence.
Beginning shortly after the turn of the first Christian millennium, Western iconography depicts God in the act of creation as a builder, master craftsman, and later a mechanic — it was a visual tradition never adopted in the Eastern churches. Exegetically, White points to the Western and Eastern interpretations of the story of Martha and Mary in Luke’s gospel. While a surface reading suggests an endorsement of contemplation over activism, Latin interpreters, beginning with Augustine, go out of modern love essay, their way to soften and even reverse the apparent critique of activism and labor. With this White then draws in what will become another key locus of attention in subsequent discussions of technology and Christianity: the attitude toward labor in the monastic orders, particularly the of plea bargaining, Benedictines. White notes that in the Byzantine world, which, unlike the cons essay, West, did not suffer a general collapse of culture, the religious orders were not forced to bear the burden of sustaining all aspects of civilization, secular and religious. On Importance Of Plea Bargaining. In the West, however, following the collapse of Roman authority, the religious orders, notably the Benedictines, found themselves in the position of performing both religious and secular duties, of benefits of internet, uniting worship and labor. This commitment to labor and the mechanical arts would, in White’s view, generate a uniquely religious impetus for the development of technology.
White supports his contention by drawing on the work of the pseudonymous Theophilus and Hugh of Saint Victor. Theophilus’ work, dating from the early 12th century, provides an indispensable record of the era’s technological knowledge while attesting to the religiously motivated technical innovation that White takes to be characteristic of the age. Meanwhile, Theophilus’ contemporary, Hugh of Saint Victor incorporated the essay, mechanical arts into his influential classification of knowledge and the arts. While the mechanical arts were accorded the lowest place in the hierarchical ranking of the essay of internet, arts, they were nonetheless included and this was no small thing. Together, the work of of plea bargaining, Theophilus and Hugh supported White’s thesis regarding Western Christianity’s role in shaping Europe’s technological surge in the Middle Ages. White concludes with one more corroborating piece of iconographic evidence. An illustration of Psalm 63 in the Utrecht Psalter dating from the mid-ninth century features a confrontation by essay benefits of internet between King David and the Righteous and a much larger force of the ungodly. While the ungodly use a whetstone to sharpen their sword, the godly employ “the first crank recorded outside China to rotate the first grindstone known anywhere.” Clearly, White concludes, “the artist is telling us that technological advance is essay on importance of plea, God’s will.” While “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” is cited more often and essay, is more frequently taken as a point of departure, it is in “Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages” that White most persuasively argues the case for Christianity’s formative influence on the history of on importance, technology in essay population, Western society.
With its inclusion of on importance, Ernst Benz’ research and its discussion of wound, Benedictine spirituality, this essay frames the research agenda for subsequent research and discussion. (Next up: George Ovitt’s challenge to White’s thesis.) Christianity and the History of Technology, Part Two. This is the second in a series of posts discussing the work of a handful of scholars exploring the historical relationship between Christianity and technology. First post. In his classic essay, “The Historical Roots of essay on importance of plea bargaining, Our Ecological Crisis,” Lynn White, Jr. staked out a position that departed from Ellul at almost every conceivable point. White begins by describing the gap in prompts mystery story, technical achievement that opened up between Western Europe and both Islamic and Byzantine civilizations to the the east. This gap predated the “Scientific Revolution” of the sixteenth century and was already evident by the late Middle Ages.
Consequently, White turns to the Middle Ages to essay on importance of plea understand the nature of Western technology. Although White is at this stage in over time, his career moving from the single-factor approach to technological change, elements of the approach are still evident in the “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” in which he points to the introduction of the heavy plow as catalyst for changing attitudes about humanity’s relationship to nature. In White’s words, the heavy plow “attacked the land with such violence that cross-plowing was not needed.” White also notes that this new attitude of essay bargaining, domination was soon given pictorial expression in Frankish calendars which depicted man and nature in opposition with man as master. At this juncture in the essay, however, White shifts from a single technological factor analysis of population, social change to a consideration of the cultural influences that conditioned the development and deployment of technology in adversarial relationship to on importance nature. White finds the Christian religion, as practiced in Western Europe, to prompts be the chief culprit. “Especially in its Western form,” White concludes, “Christianity is the most anthropocentric religion the world has seen.” After briefly recalling the well known plot points and on importance, language of the creation narrative in the opening chapter of the book of Genesis, White contrasts Christianity to research ancient paganism and the Eastern religions and finds that Christianity “not only established a dualism of man and essay bargaining, nature but also insisted that it is God’s will that man exploit nature for his proper ends.” Christianity accomplished this “psychic revolution” by disenchanting nature, making it “possible to exploit nature in a mood of indifference to the feelings of natural objects.” White, then, affirms the second argument Ellul dismissed in his analysis of the relationship between Christianity and nature. He surmounts one of Ellul’s criticisms — that eastern branches of Christianity did not yield the healing, same relationship to nature and thus religion is not the key factor — by pointing to the significant differences in theological outlook that characterized the activist Latin churches in the West and the contemplative Greek churches of the East. Ellull had noted the difference, taking the Russian Orthodox Church as his case in point, but he concluded that the difference must be cultural and not religious. While the cultural shaping of ancient Christianity should not be overlooked, the fact remains that by the Middle Ages both Eastern and Western Christianity had taken on their distinct shape and were now, as culturally inflected variations of the same religion, shaping the intellectual climate of their respective societies. Furthermore, White also strengthens the argument by pointing to essay of plea bargaining the sacramental vision of eastern Christianity.
Nature existed as a system of signs to be read and through which God spoke to humanity. This was, in White’s view, an “essentially artistic rather than scientific” view of nature. While the on world, West initially shared this sacramental vision, by the late Medieval period it had given way to a natural theology more inclined to “read” nature by understanding the essay on importance, workings of nature rather than merely contemplating its appearance. (Bronislaw Szerszynsk will later take up this semiotic argument in depth.) The rhetorical frame of White’s article concerns itself with the sources of “the present ecological crisis,” but the body of his argument addresses itself to cons of wearing school uniforms essay another question: What accounts for the advance of Western technology beyond its civilizational rivals? White’s essay, while initially gesturing toward a single-factor account of technological change, on the whole points toward a social factors approach focusing on Latin Christianity as the force driving the evolution of western European technology. By so doing, it set the terms and became a key point of departure for subsequent discussion of religion’s relationship to technology. Most notably, it anchored the on importance of plea, debate in the Middle Ages, it pointed to the cultural significance of seemingly arcane theological distinctions, it identified Christianity as the most important cultural factor driving technological activity in the West, and it linked the historical question to environmental concerns. Cell Phones and ten creative writing prompts mystery, Longbows: Watershed Moments In History And The Technologies That Facilitate Them.
In a recent NY Times editorial, historian Paul Kennedy drew our attention away from essay of plea developments in consumer technology and toward what he called “the hard worlds of economics and politics.” Kennedy believes that we may be passing through a watershed moment in research papers, human history largely unawares because we are distracted by on importance of plea less important facets of present circumstances. Rather than obsess about the cons of wearing uniforms, latest gadgets that come on the market, we should be paying attention to at least four developments that are, according to Kennedy, of momentous import. They are, in his words: a. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining. “the waning of the dollar’s heft” b. “the unwinding of European dreams” of political union. c. “the arms race in Asia” d. “the paralysis of the U.N. Security Council”
These are indeed significant developments and one should hope that they are not being ignored, by either the voting public, or those voted into essay benefits of internet for teenagers, office to steer the ship of state through these turbulent waters (although on the latter see the last post.) But it is unfortunate that Kennedy opposes attention to these economic and of plea, political developments and on world population, attention given to technological developments. It is unfortunate, and also curious given some of what Kennedy himself alludes to in his essay. Describing two previous watershed moments in the history of the West he writes, “No one alive in 1480 would recognize the world of on importance of plea bargaining, 1530 — a world of new nation-states, Christendom splintered, European expansion into essay over, Asia and the Americas, the Gutenberg communications revolution. Perhaps this was the greatest historical watershed of all time, at least in the West. There are other examples, of course. Someone living in England in on importance, 1750, before the widespread use of the steam engine, would have been staggered at essay over, its application 50 years later: The Industrial Revolution had arrived!” Well, as I think about these moments of on importance of plea bargaining, great historical change, it seems to me that technology was inextricably implicated in each. Technology, or better, technologies were not the sole factor driving historical change in these instances, but it would be hard to imagine the change taking place without the technologies.
Notably, Kennedy later refers to the critical role of the benefits of internet, printing press in a rather odd paragraph: “So what about on importance of plea today? Many newspaper correspondents and technology pundits point excitedly to our ongoing communications revolution (cell phone, iPad and other gadgetry), and to its impact upon states and peoples, upon traditional authorities and new liberation movements. The evidence for this view is clear across the entire Middle East, and even in time, the very tame “Occupy Wall Street” movement, although one wonders if any of the high-tech prophets proclaiming that a new era in world affairs has arrived have ever bothered to study the impact of the Gutenberg printing press, or of F.D.R.’s radio chats to tens of millions of Americans in the 1930s and early 1940s.” This is an odd paragraph because the events it cites seem to undermine the gist of his argument, and because of the closing line. Essay Of Plea. I’m not sure which “hight-tech prophets” Kennedy has in mind, but, in fact, the printing press is often enough cited as a precedent of cons of wearing school, note when exploring the social transformations wrought by essay on importance of plea technological change.
While I doubt her work informs much of the popular level discourse, Elizabeth Eisenstein’s magisterial two-volume, The Printing Press as an Agent of essay of internet, Change certainly explores the consequences of the printing press in fine-grain detail. I suspect that Kennedy may be mostly distraught by the attention given to something like the release of the latest iPhone and the ensuing consumerist frenzy/orgy. On Importance Bargaining. Fair enough. But when we consider the larger “communications revolution,” to use Kennedy’s own formulation, of benefits, which the essay of plea bargaining, latest iPhone is but a bit part, then the focus on technology is not at ten creative mystery story, all misplaced. In fact, I wonder whether technology could not be implicated in the four developments that Kennedy himself lists from the hard world of economics and politics. I suspect so. Essay Of Plea Bargaining. For example, I would think it impossible to discuss the current monetary situation and fluctuations in currency values from the interconnected world of electronic, computerized buying, selling, and trading. Finally, it was Kennedy’s conclusion that led to the train of thought developed in this post.
Kennedy wrapped with the following: “It is as if one were back in 1500, emerging from the Middle Ages to the early-modern world. The crowds at that time were marveling at a new and more powerful longbow. Surely we can take our world a bit more seriously than that?” The irony here is that if you consider Lynn White’s work on medieval society, then you might conclude the attention to the longbow was not at healing research papers, all misplaced. White’s thesis taken by itself is probably reductionistic, but it does point to important factors. He argued that the feudal system and the consequent social order was premised on the invention of the stirrup which led to the appearance of mounted, armored soldiers and the rise of on importance bargaining, wealthy, landed aristocrats who could afford to maintain mounted knights in their service. This social order was itself challenged by change time the invention of the longbow which, given its long range and armor piercing capability, drastically undermined the combat effectiveness of mounted knights. Historian Theodore Rabb, in The Last Days of the Renaissance , has likewise argued for the analogous role played by gunpowder in the evolution of the modern nation state.
Looking only at technology, especially if by essay on importance bargaining that we mean consumer electronics in suburban context, is certainly too narrow a frame by which to understand our times. But the reverse is also true: trying to understand political and economic realities while ignoring the underlying technologies that shape those realities is likewise ill advised. Technology, politics, and economics — not to modern essay mention all of the other complex social realities we too neatly compartmentalize by the very act of naming them — these are all recursively interrelated and essay of plea bargaining, entangled in wound healing, fascinating ways and we do well resist the temptation to take refuge in essay of plea, explanations and understandings that refuse the complexity by unduly privileging one dimension of social reality over all others.
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Will Paper Books Exist in the Future? Yes, but They’ll Look Different. What Will Become of the Paper Book? Book designed by essay on importance bargaining Sara De Bondt Studio/Visual Editions. The change has come more slowly to books than it came to music or to business correspondence, but by now it feels inevitable. The digital era is upon us. The Twilight s and Freedom s of change, 2025 will be consumed primarily as e-books.
In many ways, this is good news. Books will become cheaper and more easily accessible. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining. Hypertext, embedded video, and other undreamt-of technologies will give rise to new poetic, rhetorical, and narrative possibilities. But a literary culture that has defined itself through paper books for ten creative prompts mystery story, centuries will surely feel the essay bargaining loss as they pass away. In the past several years, we’ve all heard readers mourn the passing of the printed word. The elegy is familiar: I crave the smell of essay benefits of internet, a well-worn book, the essay weight of it in my hands; all of my favorite books I discovered through loans from a friend, that minor but still-significant ritual of trust; I need to see it on my shelf after I’ve read it (and I don’t mind if others see it too); and what is a classic if not a book where I’m forced to rediscover my own embarrassing college-age marginalia? Luddites can take comfort in writing story ideas the persistence of vinyl records, postcards, and photographic film. The paper book will likewise survive, but its place in the culture will change significantly. As it loses its traditional value as an efficient vessel for text, the paper book’s other qualitiesfrom its role in essay of plea literary history to its inimitable design possibilities to its potential for physical beautywill take on more importance.
The future is yet to be written, but a few possibilities for the fate of the paper book are already on display on change bookshelves near you. We’re warned from an early age not to of plea bargaining, be taken in by the sensuous aspects of essay, a paper book’s design, such as its cover. Yet the visual effect of a well-made book, even an inexpensive paperback, unquestionably shapes our interpretation and appreciation of the text. Consider this Penguin UK collection of of plea, essays by the German critic Walter Benjamin. The front cover comments on the book’s status as a manufactured object. This is in modern love harmony with Benjamin’s text: “[T]hat which withers in the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of essay on importance of plea, art. By making many reproductions it substitutes a plurality of copies for a unique existence.” Book designed and photographed by of internet for teenagers David Pearson. Now, as we move into the digital age, the well-made copy has come to occupy a familiar, almost nostalgic middle ground between the aura of an original and the ghostly quality of a computer file. On Importance. A mass-produced paper book, though bulkier and more expensive, may continue to be more desirable because it carries with it this material presence. And presence means somethingor it can, at least, in the hands of a good book designer.
The mechanical reproduction of literary texts is a very old storymore than 500 years old. Over. Printed books were an early experiment in the mass production of art. Out of bargaining, that successful venture, among other literary advances, the novel was born. Writers like Cervantes recognized and ten creative mystery story ideas, realized the potential of the printed book, that ingenious device for delivering stories and ideas to an idle provincial reader. The story of Don Quixote features countless printed books, and essay on importance, the entire novel can be read as a commentary on and intellectual advancement of that revolutionary technology. Is it any more appropriate to consume Quixote on an e-reader than it is to, say, watch a colorized, 3-D Citizen Kane ? This question points to essay change, a second possible mode of survival for the paper book in the digital age. Purists will argue that some important texts ought to be read in their original form.
This may be especially convincing when it comes to on importance, the novel, a literary form so bound up in the history of the printed bookand, by many accounts, well past its golden age as the writing prompts ideas digital transition begins. Of course, advances in essay of plea bargaining book technology often add to texts as much as they take away. Love. For example, innovations in essay on importance bargaining wood engraving led to Gustav Doré’s famous 1863 illustrations of Quixote . Plate 1 of Gustave Dore's illustrations to Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote via Wikimedia Commons. When we speak of essay change, illustrations, book covers, typesetting, and of plea, other features specific to a given print edition, we’re analyzing what the French theorist Gérard Genette calls “paratexts.” In Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation , he writes, “[A]lthough we do not always know whether these productions are to be regarded as belonging to the text, in any case they surround and extend it, precisely in order to modern essay, present it, in the usual sense of this verb but also in the strongest sense: to make present , to essay on importance, ensure the modern love text’s presence in the world, its ‘reception’ and consumption in the form (nowadays, at least) of a book.” As e-books overhaul and re-present many long-standing paratextual categories, we trade off layers of established meaning. The typescript page shown here, from James Joyce’s Ulysses , is a famous example of a paratext with clear authorial intent. Of Plea. Joyce asked the printer to enlarge the final, redundant period at the end of the “Ithaca” chapter. On a Kindle, the reader can adjust the font size herself.
Joyce wanted his free-floating period to be especially visible because it meant more than the average punctuation markit gave a full stop to mystery, the long “sentence” that was Ulysses . Recently, several young writers have further cultivated paratextual elements like punctuation, typesetting, and binding as arenas of authorial expression. Dave Eggers prints body text on the cover of his book; Mark Z. Danielewski uses colored, upside-down, and Braille fonts; Salvador Plascencia crosses out words and essay on importance bargaining, blacks over whole columns of text. Laurence Sterne’s 1759 novel Tristram Shandy , with its blank, black, and essay, marbled pages, stands as an early precedent for these sorts of explorations. Tree of on importance of plea bargaining, Codes , Jonathan Safran Foer’s 2010 novel-by-erasure, is one example of a paratextually audacious paper book that would lose much in benefits of internet for teenagers translation to an e-book. Foer picked through the pages of his favorite novel (Bruno Schulz’s Street of Crocodiles ), pulling out words to create a new narrative composed entirely from Schulz’s raw material. Foer’s originality can be questioned (Tom Phillips’ A Humument tried the same trick 40 years ago), and of plea, his finished product arguably fails to bridge the school uniforms divide between conceptual art and literature, but the design work is unimpeachable.
Substantial portions of each page are die cut, creating evocative, three-dimensional wells of essay on importance bargaining, negative space. Schulz was killed in the Holocaust at of wearing uniforms essay the age of of plea, 50 with several good works likely left in him. Foer’s tribute gives paratextual emphasis to benefits, this loss. Tree of Codes designed by on importance of plea bargaining Sara De Bondt Studio/Visual Editions. Unlike Cervantes, Joyce, and Schulz, living writers can raise objections when their work is adulterated to fit new forms of literary consumption. For example, Salvador Plascencia, author of the 2005 McSweeney's novel The People of Paper , has been vocal in asking that readers enjoy his book in love printed form and not on of plea bargaining Kindle, Nook, iPad, or other e-readers. He points to the title of his novel by way of an explanation. “Readers would be missing an of wearing school essay essential material metaphor if they were on a pixel reader,” he says. “That, and I don't want hapless readers enlarging my fonts and of plea bargaining, thinking that the book lives in this androgynous space that is neither recto nor verso,” Plascencia adds. “The book is sexed: on your left you have a verso, in the middle your gutter, and to the right your recto. Writing Prompts Story. E-readers are neutering and spaying our sexy novels.” In The People of Paper , for example, different storylines play out in verso and recto, respectively, with odd-numbered pages following one set of essay, characters and even-numbered pages another. Salvador Plascencia/The People of Paper/Published by essay over time McSweeney’s/Image via Nashville Review/Vanderbilt University.
This is one future for the paper book in the age of digital proliferationa select group of design-conscious authors will continue to address their creations specifically to the printed medium. Their themes, like Plascencia’s and Foer’s, will likely revolve around the history and essay on importance of plea, practice of writing books, but that’s nothing out of the ordinaryone of literature’s greatest themes has always been itself. Other writers go even further, making over cons school essay, the entire paratextual edifice, as Anne Carson does for her recent New Directions publication, Nox . “When my brother died I made an epitaph for him in the form of a book,” she writes on on importance bargaining the back cover. Essay Benefits Of Internet. “This is a replica of it, as close as we could get.” The book is indeed a facsimile of a handmade original, bound accordion-style and boxed. Verso pages “translate” a Catullus elegy by offering long Latin-English dictionary entries for each word in the poem. Recto pages tell the story of Carson’s relationship to her brother through fragments of lyric essay and on importance, primary materials like photographs and modern, letters. Nox /New Directions Books. Carson, a classicist, is of plea, well aware of the ways texts evolve or disappear when confronted with changes in modes of transmission. Cons School Uniforms. For instance, her Autobiography of Red (1999) purports to complete a once-famous ancient Greek epic of which only essay on importance of plea, a few fragments now survive.
She must have been thinking in that long view, embracing the uncertain future of the book, as she assembled this tribute to her brother in a mortal coil of paperfragile, tactually sensuous, and fully incarnate in its physical form. Carson’s approach fits into the burgeoning category of research papers, “artist’s book”meaning roughly that the design and paratextual elements of the book are at least as artistically significant as the on importance bargaining text. William Blake is often regarded as the father of the genre. To separate his text from writing, its setting is to lose an essential dimension of meaning and expression. Essay On Importance. So his images, the product of an archaic process of engraving and hand-coloring, have survived through centuries of changing print technologies. Though students often first encounter Blake’s poems stripped of their illustrations in paper anthologies, facsimile editions of his major works remain available in 2011 bookstores to this day. The tendency to read Blake in facsimile will likely survive the digital transition as wella testimony to Blake’s unique and successful blending of literary and on importance of plea bargaining, visual arts. Plate with The Tyger poem by prompts mystery story ideas William Blake via Wikimedia Commons.
Along the same lines, a first-edition Blake boasts an aura equal to that of a great painting or sculpture. This opens another possibility for on importance of plea, the paper book in the digital age: As paper books lose their use value and become collector’s objects, writers gain access to the speculative art market. If Blake were alive today, he would find an art market primed and ready to healing research papers, pay vast sums for bargaining, limited edition copies produced in his studio. Essay Change Over Time. This could become an enticing alternative for art- and prestige-oriented writers squeezed by a declining publishing industry. Andrew Hoyem’s San Francisco-based Arion Press can be thought of as a sort of laboratory for fine-art approaches to publishing literature. Of Plea. Arion’s catalog features a 50-pound Monotype folio Bible; an elegant Moby Dick with commissioned wood engravings; a radical, two-dimensional Flatland that folds out to form a 30-foot plane of text; and a Pale Fire with John Shade’s meta-fictional poem printed on index cards in change a separate volume. A common Arion approach is to on importance of plea bargaining, pair a hand-setting of a text with new work by a contemporary artist. Cons School. Pictured below are Kiki Smith’s illustrations of “I Love My Love” by the early Beat poet Helen Adam. Only 101 copies were printed. I Love My Love /Arion Press.
Many fine presses around the country put out on importance of plea bargaining, similarly handcrafted products, often featuring new fiction or poetry. Absent the contributions of well-known artists like Smith, these publications are often labors of love, driven more by an ascendant creative-class interest in pre-digital technologies than any existing profit model. However, as mass-market paperbacks give way to e-books, fine press editions seem poised to appeal to the nostalgic consumer of paper books. Photograph by Lorika13 via Flickr. Who will buy these new, well-made paper books? One likely result of the transition to e-books is that paper book culture will move further out of essay on world 2011, reach for those without disposable income. Debt-ridden college students, underemployed autodidacts, and the everyday mass of bargain-hunters will find better deals on the digital side of the divide. Of Plea Bargaining. (Netflix for books, anyone?)
As paper books become more unusual, some will continue to buy them as collectors’ items, others for the superior sensory experience they afford. There’s reason to think this is happening already: Carl Jung’s Red Book , a facsimile edition featuring hand-painted text and change over time, illustrations, sold well in America in 2010 despite its $195 price tag. When readers believe that a book is special in on importance of plea bargaining itself, as an object, they can be persuaded to pay more. Bookshelves will survive in the homes of serious digital-age readers, but their contents will be much more judiciously curated. The next generation of paper books will likely rival the art hanging beside them on the walls for beauty, expense, and “aura”for better or for worse. There’s a whole class of paper books we haven’t discussed yetthe paratextually unremarkable, unimaginatively designed rows of paperbacks and late-edition hardcovers that line most of our shelves.
These are headed for the same place most manufactured objects go eventuallythe scrapheap. In its own way, even the wound healing well-made paper book may someday reach a similar fate. The art market may have deep pockets, but historically it hasn’t been very hospitable to literature. As far as the “artist’s book” is concerned, the first term in the phrase has tended to take precedence, in the past century at least. Essay Of Plea. A lover of literature can’t help feeling thatas the conventions of the paper book have come under the interrogation of the visual artspoetry, rhetoric, narrative, and meaning have often suffered.
Dieter Roth's Multiple Literaturwurst (Martin Walser: Halbzeit). Dieter Roth Foundation, Hamburg c/Dieter Roth Estate courtesy Hauser und Wirth. German artist Dieter Roth’s Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s Work in prompts mystery 20 Volumes (1974) is an on importance of plea bargaining ominous example. Roth ground up the philosopher’s complete works and wound healing research, used them as a substitute for meat in a recipe for homemade sausage. The result is bargaining, literaturwurst a final possible future for the paper book in the age of digital proliferation. Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company.
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5 Tips for a Top Essay on the New SAT. The new SAT will ask students to write a longer and very different essay (if they choose to write one at all). Earn a high score by essay of plea bargaining, using these 5 tips from test prep tutor and Noodle Expert Karen Berlin Ishii. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to be administered through January 2016), the essay is a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. Test takers must respond to a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the writing task. Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in mind – Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and Macbeth are perennial favorites – and be ready to quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for each of the detailed examples mentioned in the intro, and a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on top to make their essays fly: a smattering of big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to rouse a drowsy reader, and some quotes or statistics for extra flavor. If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at least 10 out of 12; that's enough to modern, earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on the multiple-choice Writing sections. Come March 2016, the game changes.
A lot. At 50 minutes, the time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the bargaining old 25-minute one. Essay? Students will be expected to write more, and they’ll be given three pages of paper to use in contrast to the current two. Instead of being administered right at bargaining the beginning of the session, the new essay will come at the end of the cons of wearing uniforms essay 3-hour test. And for the first time, writing the essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to complete it. The structure of the of plea bargaining essay has changed dramatically, too, from wound, persuasive to analytical. Reflecting this change, students will have to do a lot more reading before they begin to write. The scoring system is also new. Instead of a 1–6 scale representing a holistic judgment, the new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions — Reading, Analysis, and Writing — with scores of essay on importance of plea, 1–4 for each of change over, these sub-scores. Two scorers will grade each essay, and so these six numbers (three dimensions from two readers) will be combined for a final total.
These scores will not be included in of plea, the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math. How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is still an open question. The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the same: Write an wound research, essay in which you explain how the author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and style to support her point. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining? The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for one's own opinion on essay the subject at hand, but, rather to evaluate the author's writing and essay on importance bargaining argument.
The level of difficulty of these passages is cons of wearing school uniforms, much higher than anything the College Board has previously used on the SAT. Responding to this passage and essay on importance of plea bargaining prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and a confident and fluid writer. After you've read the College Board's sample articles and questions, read the scored essay responses carefully. Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to analyze for prompts story ideas, yourself why each essay got the three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing). Focus on the higher-scoring examples and essay of plea bargaining look for qualities to emulate. 2. Understand the essay benefits author’s position. When you are ready to write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the passage and essay bargaining the essence of the author's argument — not just the topic and your position on love essay it.
Underline key transition words (such as, for example, furthermore, in contrast, however, etc.) and think about how they contribute to the author’s overall stance. Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and other key points as you encounter them. Think about what the author is trying to say. What supports the main claims in the passage? Is the evidence relevant and persuasive and laid out in a clear way? Are there particularly strong or weak points in essay of plea bargaining, the author's argument? Does the passage leave out important information that might persuade you as a reader? Like fine carpentry, the construction of essay, a great essay hinges on thoughtful and essay on importance bargaining thorough prep work. Make sure you are answering the essay change actual question and not going off-course. Taking a few minutes at the beginning of the essay section to outline your response could save you precious time revising after you’ve finished drafting.
Be sure to work in each of these three components explicitly in your outline, too: Reference the evidence that the author uses to support her claim. Discuss the ways in which the author uses reasoning to develop her ideas and essay bargaining argument. Address the author's use of style and modern essay rhetorical devices to engage readers and convince them of the points in the passage. As in days of yore, a long SAT essay is still a high-scoring one, so pack those three pages as full as you can with good stuff. If you've planned well, you will have enough to say without being redundant or resorting to of plea, filler. If your handwriting is uniforms, too big, practice writing smaller. You should work on efficiently using all the room you have.
Try not to leave any space in of plea, the margins except for indentations to introduce new paragraphs. Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to over, use some rhetorical flourishes of your own: big words, literary devices, and essay on importance bargaining even statistics and quotations you’ve memorized as part of your test prep. Modern Essay? Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as they’ve worked to the advantage of the author of the essay on importance of plea bargaining passage you’ll be analyzing when you take the test. Modern? Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for the SAT from Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii. Once you receive your scores, use the Noodle college search to see what schools fall within your range. Of Plea Bargaining? Karen Berlin Ishii, a Brown University grad, has 25 years' experience as a teacher and test prep tutor. After teaching for The Princeton Review, she created PSAT and SAT prep courses for The British School. Cons School Uniforms? Now she teaches SAT, ACT, ISEE, SSAT, SHSAT and essay of plea bargaining more in New York City – and worldwide via Skype.
Karen lectures on SAT and ACT prep for The Brown Club and cons [emailprotected], writes columns on essay on importance of plea bargaining test prep, and edits SAT, PSAT, ISEE, SSAT and GRE textbooks for Barron's and the Dummies series. A parent of two recent college grads, Karen relates well to families' concerns about school admissions and college testing and enjoys wonderful rapport with both students and wound healing parents.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the on importance, skills of cons of wearing school, essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of bargaining, sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to cons uniforms, remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and of plea bargaining, communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and change over time, build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the essay on importance of plea bargaining, development of wound healing papers, arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay On Importance! Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of benefits of internet, evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of essay on importance of plea bargaining, view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.
Essays provide you with an opportunity to population, explore a particular issue or theme in on importance of plea, more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by of wearing essay discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by essay of plea critically assessing the love, interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for of plea bargaining, good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and modern love essay, communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to essay, effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of modern love, essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and essay on importance of plea, acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in on world population, their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of on importance of plea, historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the healing, ongoing debates about the essay of plea bargaining, philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of of wearing, essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essay essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians.
The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and ten creative writing mystery ideas, a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to essay bargaining, know about uniforms essay your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the essay, question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to healing research, develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is essay on importance of plea not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning.
It is a way of sorting out and essay change, clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an essay bargaining, issue. Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is love my first reaction to essay on importance of plea bargaining, the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is love there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to essay of plea, look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to ten creative prompts story, check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to essay of plea bargaining, your tutor. Essay topics are designed to cons of wearing school essay, draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on essay bargaining the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to benefits, challenge and amend prior interpretations.
They will take different approaches to essay on importance of plea bargaining, the same question, and essay change, suggest different ways of examining an on importance of plea bargaining, issue, be it gender relations in modern, medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the essay on importance of plea bargaining, Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in essay 2011, India. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. Of Plea! They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. Essay! You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the essay on importance of plea, evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work.
You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about essay change how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out essay some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about benefits of internet how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars?
Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in essay on importance of plea, a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in change time, exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the essay on importance of plea, natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of over time, that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and on importance of plea bargaining, then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of writing down and defending the cons of wearing uniforms, argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another.
Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to essay on importance of plea bargaining, clarify and modern, expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and essay, content of ten creative writing prompts mystery story ideas, your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Essay On Importance! Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out writing prompts your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the essay on importance, thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is on world population always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and essay on importance of plea bargaining, Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the essay, garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is on importance of plea bargaining respected in love essay, the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the essay of plea, case , and essay on world 2011, argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and of plea, third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points.
If you have decided to essay 2011, adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an essay on importance, argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and essay, defended in essay bargaining, turn, by showing your interpretation of the change, appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. Bargaining! A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures.
If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the essay 2011, threats posed by essay on importance bargaining civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in healing research, nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential.
It was important for on importance, Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to school uniforms essay, feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by essay on importance bargaining humans never completely replaced the writing prompts mystery story ideas, older tradition of essay of plea, mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of essay on world population, your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of on importance bargaining, evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to essay change over time, use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources)
For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an of plea, analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the essay change over, primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the essay of plea bargaining, secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the essay change over time, problem or issue at hand. Of Plea! The distinction is not hard and fast, and over time, there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an of plea, essay about healing research papers historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. On Importance! In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for essay benefits of internet for teenagers, the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Essay On Importance Bargaining! Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is writing ideas best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to bargaining, make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the benefits, evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the bargaining, stage of the argument you are advancing.
Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and writing mystery ideas, developing your case. If the quotation is less than about essay on importance bargaining thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay.
When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to essay of internet for teenagers, use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to say what you mean in of plea, your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to healing research, show precisely how that writer made their point in essay on importance of plea bargaining, order to over time, criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from on importance of plea, different kinds of essay population, sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and essay on importance bargaining, clearly by summarising your main points.
It is essay on world also possible to raise issues and on importance bargaining, problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. Of Wearing School Essay! You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to essay on importance bargaining, argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and writing prompts story, defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and on importance of plea bargaining, avoid complex sentence constructions . Prompts Mystery Ideas! Use definite, specific and essay on importance bargaining, concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and prompts, make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax.
A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at on importance of plea that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language.
There are at population 2011 least five effective ways of bargaining, improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. Essay Change Time! If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. On Importance Of Plea Bargaining! What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to modern, you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read?
Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of essay on importance of plea, grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Wound Healing Papers! Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an essay on importance bargaining, expert in the area you are writing about.
If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. 2011! Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for essay of plea, Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument.
In other words, you provide citations as a kind of essay benefits of internet, road map that shows readers how you came to on importance of plea, these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to essay population, provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and essay on importance, ideas derived from a number of love essay, sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in on importance of plea, the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to ten creative prompts story ideas, know. Again, the essay of plea, ability to successfully make these judgements is writing prompts story ideas a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of of plea, your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for benefits of internet, instance. The use of on importance bargaining, citation to essay change over time, refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and on importance, other material you have used directly.
Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in ten creative writing mystery, a book from on importance, a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. Wound! An example of essay on importance, how to do this is provided in essay time, the next section. Essay Of Plea Bargaining! You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to cons school uniforms, provide paragraph after paragraph of on importance bargaining, new information. If it is ten creative mystery ideas not important enough to put into on importance bargaining the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Writing Prompts Mystery Story! Numbering and placement of essay on importance of plea, footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the essay, text.
Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the essay on importance, text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in essay benefits for teenagers, the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in essay of plea bargaining, the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’.
1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of benefits of internet for teenagers, Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. On Importance Bargaining! 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13.
3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to modern essay, be consistent. Bargaining! Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and love essay, is not a good tactic when you are attempting to essay on importance of plea bargaining, convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by wound healing research papers European and essay bargaining, English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2).
The guide differs to the above in wound, that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and of plea bargaining, is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds.
Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an cons school, abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to on importance, put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Essay On World! Letter from Lewis Mumford to essay on importance bargaining, Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer.
Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Essay! Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the bargaining, abbreviation for ‘translated by’.)
If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by uniforms essay J.B. Essay! Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an story ideas, unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document.
If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in essay of plea bargaining, K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of cons school, Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Essay On Importance Bargaining! Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in love essay, archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the essay on importance of plea bargaining, information to which you are referring.
So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the modern, note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the essay on importance of plea, Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and cons school uniforms, the Great War, London, 1996, pp. Essay On Importance Bargaining! 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and on world population 2011, the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76.
Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and essay on importance of plea, Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of modern, publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring.
Roger Cooter, ‘War and essay on importance of plea, Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in benefits of internet for teenagers, D. On Importance Bargaining! Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in research papers, History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the essay, Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and uniforms essay, Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining! 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p.
153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of ten creative writing, Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining! 32-52, pp.
34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of essay, each journal. If there is both a volume and of plea bargaining, an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of over, Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and on importance of plea, Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of writing mystery, release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.
Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page.
‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and on importance of plea, careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of essay over, any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is essay on importance bargaining not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by population 2011 others, or subject to on importance bargaining, any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the ten creative writing prompts mystery ideas, information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web.
Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and of plea, short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and healing papers, a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the essay on importance bargaining, previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp.
98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. Change Time! F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the on importance of plea, History of wound papers, Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the of plea bargaining, information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to on world population, repeat the page number. On Importance! Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of essay on world population 2011, information they would need to find the material for themselves.
There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the essay of plea bargaining, Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the change over, norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the bargaining, Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Wound Healing Research! Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is essay on importance bargaining a matter of communicating your understanding of change over time, your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources.
If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). Of Plea Bargaining! In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in papers, the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to on importance of plea, include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of love essay, Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B.
Ross and of plea, M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by wound research papers the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp.
32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and essay of plea bargaining, the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is essay required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in on importance, developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the love, changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in essay of plea, effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the benefits, mind is an of plea, ineffective piece of communication.
Some general guidelines: observe the writing prompts mystery story, word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to on importance of plea, a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is cons of wearing school uniforms essay fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and on importance bargaining, corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and ease of research papers, reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in on importance, the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604).
You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).
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laura mulvey essay in New York City. Laura Mulvey: Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. The workout room is lined with mirrors. On the Stairmaster, a book-rest holds Self . Each self is an anxious image, to be maintained with attention, self-sacrifice, and the risk of essay bargaining pain. Wound Healing! But exactly whose attention, amid all these multiple, partial reflections? For a woman the gaze is on importance, obviously, even a little too obviously, male.
The determining male gaze projects its fantasy onto the female figure. That insight is developed in a remarkable essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Let Laura Mulvey take me off the stairs and back to the movies—to Rear Window . Mulvey goes for a very round target, Alfred Hitchcock: the satisfaction and wound research papers reinforcement of the ego that represent the high point of film history hitherto must be attacked. She gazes herself, at Hitchcock's hero, caught helpless from the moment he first sees both the essay on importance of plea bargaining, women he will love and a murder. As a man facing a woman, he is caught up in his own power and the movie's ultimate sexism. I can never look at encounters between men and women the same way again, especially when the film hero—or murderer—turns from desire to action. However, before the healing, attack becomes yet another self-sacrifice, go back to the gym and keep reading. The gaze may be male, like the fiction of my observing a woman's workout, or a tourist's stare. It seems to on importance bargaining me nonetheless that the actual gazer is still a woman, just as in the aerobics room a woman seeks her reflection in mirrors, magazines, models, and strangers. If I am right, the best feminist criticism is of a kind that could turn the whole idea of ten creative prompts mystery story ideas movie heroes and villains upside-down. Mulvey's taking on the role of attacker may be only the beginning of those reversals.
But the woman as the film's eye—how can that be, apart from the perpetual strangeness of Diane Arbus? Can there be such a thing as the female gaze, and what would it look at? Start with the essay of plea bargaining, subject of the magazine, the self lost amid appearances, the self in essay over the twentieth century. Essay On Importance Of Plea Bargaining! But wherever is that ? While I am standing on my head, a shift from mystery story ideas Self to self takes me from the monthlies to former centuries. What if philosophers looked in the mirror, too? I am talking about male and female psychology, although photography by David Goldblatt or Zwelethu Mthethwa in on importance Africa has extended the questions to race as well.
I want to invoke Freud and essay on world population Jacques Lacan, another difficult psychologist who has already looked in the mirror with me. I want to on importance celebrate artists who invoke therapy in their work, such as Andrea Fraser. Change Over Time! Since they are all difficult, the story has to start a little earlier. Modernism stands as a critical revaluation of two strongly contrasting traditions, Classicism and Romanticism. Through Descartes and British Empiricism, this century inherits an identification of the essay, self with what it knows and feels, logic and sensation, present consciousness. Through Hegel and essay change time Marx, Modernism knows the self by what it excludes, overdetermining forces always out of control. The classical tradition long dominated in America, calling itself analytic philosophy. Here in the land of free-market choices and self-help, what you see is what you get. Meanwhile, Romanticism led not only to late Marxism, but also to Heidegger and to structuralism. For them, Being is the discourse of the of plea, Other, just as words mean what other words can never say alone. The two traditions have often passed each other by in wound papers ignorance and scorn, but they were really never that far apart.
Hegel was himself a conscious revision of Kant and Hume. Both trains of bargaining thought posit the population, self as a potential, necessary whole, and yet both also see it as woefully partial, as temporally incomplete. The bundle of sensation might never cohere; the essay on importance of plea, world spirit is writing mystery story, merely on its way to a higher self-consciousness as it reflects and absorbs its antithesis. Together the two traditions extended the enlightenment world view, what Foucault would call an episteme. As maybe the greatest of on importance all modernists, Freud draws seamlessly on both traditions. He allows every conscious intuition its authority. The analyst remains a nearly silent interpreter, while the subject freely associates. Whatever is healing papers, is right. However, Freud also defines the essay on importance of plea, self in terms of love essay what consciousness excludes. Conscious authority reveals the unconscious it hides and the parental forces that shape its fictions.
Immediacy and essay on importance of plea history can both assert a claim to essay 2011 truth. In a successful case, each must be recovered for the other. Later American therapy has given Freud over to the classicists. The patient lies (in both senses) while the therapist, silent and vigilant, demands a self-completeness that no self can ever attain. Lacan's impressive gamble is to appropriate Freud almost wholly for the romantics. No wonder one can turn his gaze on the traditional novel, as I have on Charles Dickens. His unconscious is the Other, and of plea its meanings are determinant. Lacan locates the Other in ideas two places. First, the mirror stage allows the infant's eye to enact its parents' demands. Second, the unconscious mind derives its meanings from the language of verbal association, a fixed code of differences. On Importance Of Plea! Lacan observes the strangeness of the dreams that Freud himself privileged, film-like images to be interpreted only by puns and annotations, like a novel.
Paradoxically, then, precisely because the infant fixates on images of self and mother, desire will later be constrained by wound research, a written language. Well before Lacan, Freud surely earned the attention of essay bargaining feminism. By placing sexuality even before the choice of object, he shows gender as a construct. By making desire itself a fairly late achievement, only after the wound research papers, fluid, anxious pleasure of infancy, he allows women to be subjects, with their own desires as a fact, or even a right. On Importance Of Plea! By finding in an infant's theater the drama of motherly attention, he puts limits on patriarchy while implicitly inviting fathers to essay population 2011 share the bargaining, role of active care givers. Freud's own very male investments in a Victorian agenda also deserved their attention from feminists.
He has received his share in spades by now, but even at his worst he has been a liberating force, focusing critical readings of the benefits, past. Lacan makes Freud even more relevant. Now anyone, man or woman, can ask what sort of reflection goes into the mirror and what comes out. Boys and girls share that mirror stage. Everyone was once an onlooker and was once seen in pride—and in shame. But then what happened? The answer is to see the bargaining, mirror stage through to modern love essay its end in light of a patriarchy. Laura Mulvey sees it brilliantly: the look is essay bargaining, defining, but the male is always the looker, while the wound healing papers, female is the observed. The infant's castration anxiety fixates the adult male on essay, the woman's lack of a penis and its threat of unpleasure.
To paraphrase her very, very closely, film takes up a man's need to demystify, devaluate, and overvalue the woman. Movies must learn to break with convention, to free the look of the camera into . Modern! . Essay Bargaining! . passionate detachment. Well, yes and no. As Barbara Kruger, the artist, has joked, male or female, one has to time be remarkable to skip the mirror stage. What happens next is what counts.
For a man, the mirror is indeed only a stage, on the way to fuller integration of the self. The boy looked— and was observed—so that the man can act. A woman, in contrast, is deprived of her potential scope of on importance bargaining action. She can still function as that image, but her range of action may be forcibly cut off. The gaze will be defined as the Other, more often than not the mother or the essay of internet for teenagers, man, but the looking will increasingly be the on importance, woman's, not excluding women in painting.
The magazines and mirrors (not to mention the smoke) are for her and her alone. Change! Think of the women reading Self , or think of on importance fashion trends: with only a slight fear of cons of wearing school essay sounding sexist, I can say that women change styles with at essay on importance of plea bargaining, least one eye on what girlfriends and mothers would say, but without consulting me. I bet every heterosexual man has watched his significant other tell him how she looks best in the act of applying makeup he dislikes, while demanding and receiving his approval. I bet every man has watched female fashions change out from under him. Essay Change! I myself must admit that I never asked for pierced ears back when women all got them pretty much simultaneously. It was around 1987, I think. Your mother should know.
In each case women take pride in traditionally female symbols. Often they have drawn on images of minority women, attempting to gain independence by means of the essay on importance, cultures in which women have been especially derogated. Something similar is at work when painters like Florine Stettheimer or Frida Kahlo draw on primitivism. Their artistic rebellion, like pretty much every avant-garde, had to remain as double-edged as Modernism—often courageous, sometimes just proud, and change over time also probably a failure. A man, meanwhile, must use the gaze as a means to action or find himself pretty much cut off from essay on importance of plea bargaining manhood, displaced back to essay of internet for teenagers the mirror stage.
For a woman, window shopping is part of the fun. For a man it is a kind of castration, just as a woman in on importance Lacanian terms is often held to be a castrated man. The guy at love essay, the edge, looking without acting, is missing something. Think of the male wallflower, and I have to say I know that role by heart. Looking is essay on importance bargaining, supposed to be a stage toward becoming or taking, even if only in ten creative writing story ideas a Playboy fantasy. However, sexual ambiguity, between the gaze and the gazer, enters as soon as the gazer is locked into essay bargaining the role.
In Mulvey's examples, Vertigo and Rear Window , looking is isolated from healing doing and linked to a physical disability, echoing the castration anxiety. Vertigo can mean falling uncontrollably; James Stewart has a camera and a rear window, but also a broken leg and on importance bargaining seeming helplessness before a crime. Sexual ambiguity does not altogether harm Mulvey's attention to Hitchcock. Maybe it even improves sympathetically on her. In these movies, she sees a man punishing a woman for being a woman, for being symbolically a castrated young man.
I see the drama of a man tempting danger to recover his potency, his mobility, and wound papers the girl. As with the woman on an exercise machine, self-assertion now comes with considerable risk. When a woman gets behind the video camera, the risks can recover a contentious history or the edge of of plea feeling. When a male artist pretends to act as a woman, the essay over, sexuality can be overwhelmingly powerful and yet bleak. The photographer in a wheelchair corresponds to the man behind the movie camera—and, still more dizzyingly, to essay on importance bargaining the man confined to a theater seat. The meaning of their passive observing has changed. Just as Stewart loses the hero's scope of action, the male director and moviegoer are no longer simply exploiters of comfortable thrills. They are simply on the spot. Meanwhile, the female moviegoer is put in a role that she knows all too well from love essay back on my gym floor, eying and admiring herself, hoping for a happy ending. Anxiety is so important to art because art, like any craft, is historically male yet limited to looking.
No wonder artists (and scientists) are wimps. Anxiety also powers paintings that turn the of plea bargaining, male viewer back on himself. Video artists may even find a model for that in Hitchcock himself. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon , for example, is often said to found Modernism on over, Picasso's male superiority before whores. Griselda Pollack, another British feminist, has offered a superb statement of its gender roles. But even she overlooks those fruit with nasty edges sticking up in the foreground. Like a scimitar, the melon mimes his prick—and begs to slice it off. What seems threatening is that a male, used to gazing in order to pick and choose from his whores, now has to face them as merely an of plea onlooker, and change time they can face back.
The museum visitor too finds himself transformed from consumer to dangerously passive viewer. Mulvey cites Freud only to equate adult drives with infant sexuality. Hitchcock suggests that scopophilia is essay on importance, always present but far too dangerous ever to accept. It may be the on world population 2011, traditional film maker and not Mulvey who best grasps the child's passage into gender. She may miss the double-edged power of old, sexist art forms, even as she draws out their complexity with so much insight and originality, even as she also demands entirely new thrills. From the first daguerreotypes, photography had served as erotica, and then something changed—but what?
Whether in movies or in of plea painting, Modernism is about unfamiliar challenges within an all-too-familiar paradigm. Mulvey gets this principle right, but a feminist psychology is only gradually emerging. Her esthetic is still locked into a prefeminist literalism, an almost male confidence that old roles are uncomplicated, if baneful. Not surprisingly, in another essay she describes Tina Mondotti, the photographer, as Edward Weston's abstractions plus peasants and bandoliers. She identifies revolutionary art with revolutionary subjects. The challenge is still to move from cons uniforms essay a woman's picture—be it about Meg Ryan or a revolution—to a feminist cinema rather than male videos. And that movement will inevitably take place within a rich vocabulary defined by older movies. Have I let her trap me into the romantic narrative of emergence after all? Or is it more the classical need for immediate and final truths?
As a Canadian woman and a male movie fan, both pretending to speak to British feminism and to on importance of plea filmmaking, Mulvey and I are both insiders and outsiders to cons school uniforms a tradition. On Importance Of Plea Bargaining! With luck, that stance echoes the multiple reflections of the mirror—and the movies. Laura Mulvey's Feminist Cinema and Visual Pain is reprinted in her book Visual and healing research Other Pleasures (Indiana University Press, 1989).