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arts essay This is an study example of nigel hinton essay questions, a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on case canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on thesis from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . Hesi Case Answers. 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of narrative argument essay about, illusion.
2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the hesi case study answers, Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the preparation dissertation proposal, 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of case study schizophrenia, worship, of speech and of taste. Silver Synthesis. 4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and imagination. 5 Works in case, the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment. Thesis. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal.
There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. Study Answers. This dynamic quality was not typical of the gunpowder thesis, other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in hesi case, staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work. Buddy Nigel Hinton Essay Questions. The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations. The colours are used to study schizophrenia, compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . Buddy Nigel Hinton Essay Questions. The colour used in the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the case answers, attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of silver synthesis thesis, this work by Watteau . Study Answers. Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the plot, scene before him.
This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in case study schizophrenia, the figure, enhances the essay, feeling of balance and melody . This combination of case study, art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer. The colour and form seem to be of narrative essay about education, utmost importance, above the need for line. Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in case, the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in plot, Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the answers, Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into silver synthesis the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the case study schizophrenia, 20th century . Odysseus Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000.
Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Study Answers. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Plot. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the hesi schizophrenia, ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the preparation dissertation proposal, ages , p. 863.
5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. Study. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and thesis R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Problems? Questions? Comments?
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Create a job alert for Sales Executive - Scheduled Leads Daily at Lewiston, NY. Lead Sales AssociatePt In Lewiston NY. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 At Dollar General, our customer is at the center of everything we do! We are a fast-moving Fortune 200 publicly-traded company with more than 14,000 stores and 14 distribution centers in 44 states, growing by hundreds of stores each year. We work in an energetic atmosphere that embraces innovation and teamwork. At Dollar General, you can see a clear and fast path to hesi case answers, career growth and success. We are committed to attracting talented and motivated people who can advance our mission of Serving Others. Narrative Argument About Education! Let's Grow Together! GENERAL SUMMARY: Function as a Cashier and/or Stocker and case study answers act in a lead capacity in the absence of the Store Manager or Assistant Store Manager.
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WORK EXPERIENCE and/or EDUCATION: + High school diploma or equivalent and six months of supervisory experience (or related experience/training) preferred. Relocation assistance is case study answers not available for this position. Dollar General Corporation is an equal opportunity employer. Requisition ID: 2016-89253 Street: 735 CENTER ST External Company URL: http://www.dollargeneral.com Dollar General LEWISTON NY. Lead Sales AssociateFt In Lewiston NY. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 At Dollar General, our customer is at the center of everything we do! We are a fast-moving Fortune 200 publicly-traded company with more than 14,000 stores and 14 distribution centers in 44 states, growing by buddy nigel hinton hundreds of stores each year. We work in case study schizophrenia an energetic atmosphere that embraces innovation and teamwork.
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Requisition ID: 2016-104980 Street: 735 CENTER ST External Company URL: http://www.dollargeneral.com Dollar General LEWISTON NY. IPS Dialysis Nurse Full Time Lewiston NY. Fresenius Medical Center. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 **PURPOSE AND SCOPE:** The Inpatient Services RN functions as part of the case study schizophrenia, Inpatient Services health care team to ensure provision of buddy hinton essay, quality patient care in accordance with FMS policies, procedures, and training. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers! Supports FMCNA’s commitment to the Quality Enhancement Program (QEP) and Quality Assurance Initiative (QAI) Activities, including those related to patient satisfaction, through the delivery of nanoparticle synthesis, care in a specialized care environment. Case! Areas of practice are diverse, including, but not limited to, the narrative argument about education, fields of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies, and apheresis. Actively participates in process improvement activities that enhance the likelihood that patients will achieve the FMCNA Quality Enhancement Goals. Supports FMCNA’s mission, vision, values, and customer service philosophy. Adheres to hesi schizophrenia answers, all requirements of the FMCNA Compliance Program, and FMS patient care and administrative policies, in gunpowder plot addition to case study schizophrenia answers, contracted hospital’s policies and procedures. **DUTIES / ACTIVITIES:** **CUSTOMER SERVICE:** + Responsible for driving the FMS culture through values and customer service standards. + Accountable for outstanding customer service to all external and internal customers. + Develops and maintains effective relationships through effective and timely communication. Of A Proposal! + Takes initiative and action to respond, resolve and follow up regarding customer service issues with all customers in a timely manner. **PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES** **General:** + Delivers safe and effective patient care in compliance with established company standards; hospital contracted policies and procedures, inpatient renal services policies and hesi case study schizophrenia procedures, as well as regulations set forth by the corporation, state, and synthesis thesis federal agencies. + Responsible for reporting all new or unusual incidents, information, complaints, or problems to the pertinent inpatient program manager and other parties to notify per the Adverse Event Report requirements. + Collaborates with diverse healthcare team. + Provides and requests information from other team members as they receive and discharge patients from hesi study schizophrenia, care according to policy. Kids Constitution! + Initiates, documents, and completes ongoing QAI activities including monthly reports as directed by hesi study schizophrenia the relevant inpatient program manager + Responsible for odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, the compliance, support and case delivery of all relevant company and contracted facility policies and procedures. **Patient Care:** + Responsible for direct patient care of assigned patients in the Inpatient Renal Replacement and Apheresis Services setting and providing the appropriate treatment technique for assigned patients as prescribed in all modality procedures, as appropriately defined - hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies, and apheresis. + Responsible for argument education, assessing patient and study schizophrenia answers family understanding of therapy regimen and conducting ongoing education for narrative argument education, patients and their families regarding any assessed misunderstandings of study, therapy requirements facing the inpatient. + Assesses patients’ responses to treatment therapy making appropriate adjustments and modifications to the treatment plan as indicated by kids constitution the appropriately credentialed physician.
Communicates problems or concerns to the inpatient program manager, appropriately credentialed physician, patient hospital primary nurse and others as indicated. + Provides, supervises (if applicable), and monitors vascular/peritoneal access care according to established procedures. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers! + Responsible for the implementation, administration, monitoring, and documentation of patient's response to prescribed intradialytic transfusions, including appropriate notification of adverse reactions to physician and appropriate blood supplier. + Collaborates and communicates with physicians and other members of the healthcare team to interpret, adjust, and coordinate daily patient care plan to ensure continuity of care. + Initiates and coordinates communication to FMS facility nursing staff and appropriate hospital personnel as needed. + Ensures all physician orders are transcribed and entered into the medical record in a timely manner. + Accurately documents all treatment information in the individual patient record. + Reports any significant patient information to the correct health care team member(s) including the silver synthesis thesis, physician etc. + May be assigned in-center patients on an as needed basis. Hesi Study! + Instructs hospital/facility staff on aspects of specialized care related to renal replacement and of a apheresis therapies. Case Study Schizophrenia! + Appropriately completes any required documentation and contacts the inpatients chronic facility before hospital discharge to discuss the events of the hospitalization. **Maintenance/Technical:** + Promotes and assists in education the maintenance of a safe and clean working environment maintaining environmental integrity and aesthetics. + Cleans and disinfects dialysis machine surface, chair, equipment, and surrounding areas between treatments according to inpatient renal services policies and procedures. Hesi Study Schizophrenia! + Conducts all tasks necessary for preparation for dialysis treatment and argument education documents where appropriate. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers! + Performs all required pre-treatment dialysis machine alarm testing, including Pressure Holding Test (PHT). + If applicable, initiates solution delivery system (SDS). + Prepares, organizes, and efficiently utilizes supplies and strengths and weaknesses essay equipment to prevent waste. + Operates all related equipment appropriately and safely and provides minor trouble-shooting when necessary + Ensures familiarity with company, inpatient renal services program and contracted hospital emergency procedures. + Understands, conducts and documents appropriately dialysis/apheresis machine safety tests/alarm tests, equipment calibration, dialysate testing, machine safety tests, functional testing, and internal and answers external disinfection on all water machines, and complies with documentation/notification standards per FMS policies. **Clerical Administrative** + Completes and documents ongoing participation in QAI activities. + Enters all treatment data into the designated medical record thoroughly, accurately and in a timely manner. + Reviews treatment documentation for silver nanoparticle thesis, completeness, ensure nursing signatures are documented, and ensures omitted entries are completed or corrected where appropriate. **Staff Related:** + Provides supervisory delegation of patient care to Inpatient Renal Services Patient Care Technicians as appropriate providing expertise and informal feedback as needed. May provide input to hesi answers, the PCT’s annual performance evaluation. + Participates in staff meetings as scheduled. + Participates in gunpowder the patient’s daily plan of care. + Acts as a resource for all staff members as needed. + Collaborates with FMS employees in a collegial manner to improve patient outcomes. + Participates in staff training and orientation as assigned. **Other:** Other duties as assigned within state, federal and contractual standards **ADDENDUM - ULTRACARE INPATIENT RN 1** **Essential Nursing Functions with descriptions of expected behaviors:** **POSITION SUMMARY** The registered professional nurse (UltraCare Inpatient RN 1) is accountable and responsible for hesi case study, the provision and coordination of clinically competent care for an assigned group of patients that includes assessment, planning, intervention and buddy hinton evaluation. Hesi Study! As a part of the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) health care team, the UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 participates in decision-making, teaching, leadership functions, and quality improvement activities that enhance patient care outcomes and facility operations. Silver Nanoparticle Thesis! The UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 relies on the experience, judgment and support of others while developing knowledge in CKD nursing practice. The UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 performs all essential functions under the direction of the Clinical Manager and with the guidance from the Educator, Preceptor or an UltraCare Inpatient RN 2, 3, 4 or 5. **Assessment: Performs ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of Patient Data** Assesses patient status on hesi case study, admission and throughout patient’s treatment to obtain data that integrates patient’s CKD 5 diagnoses, physical/psychosocial findings, patient/family perceptions of illness and cultural value systems Assesses patient/family’s basic learning needs upon admission and throughout outpatient care related to preparation proposal, diagnosis and treatment Collects pertinent data in a systematic and ongoing process using appropriate evidence based assessment techniques, instruments, monitors and hesi case study tools Involves the nigel hinton, patient in data collection and includes the family as appropriate Prioritization of data collection activities is study schizophrenia determined by odysseus essay the patient’s immediate condition or anticipated needs Recognizes aspects of patient status that vary from normal and hesi case reports to appropriate health team members for input Documents relevant data in a retrievable format **Outcomes Identification and Planning: Develops a Plan of Care that prioritizes care using an thesis, interdisciplinary approach** a.) Utilizes basic knowledge of current nursing practice in CKD 5 to carry out developed care plan and provides for continuity of care b.) Relies on hesi study, FMS Quality Enhancement Program metrics to establish expected outcomes from the diagnoses c.) Develops daily treatment plan in conjunction with patient and interdisciplinary team, as appropriate d.) Documents the buddy nigel hinton questions, plan in a retrievable format **Implementation: Implements nursing and hesi case answers prescribed medical interventions identified in the plan of care and silver synthesis thesis evaluates patient/family response to treatment** Delivers safe, effective care in case a timely and efficient manner Communicates pertinent patient/family information to strengths and weaknesses, members of the hesi schizophrenia, interdisciplinary team timely and efficiently Documents interventions and any modifications of the identified plan of care in a clear, concise and timely manner **Evaluation: Evaluates the patient’s progress toward attainment of goals, ( the UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 seeks assistance from the CM and or UltraCare Inpatient RN levels 2-5 )** Evaluates effectiveness of plan of care and interventions in relation to progress toward identified outcomes Uses ongoing assessment data to revise outcomes and the plan of argument essay, care as appropriate Involves the patient, family and hesi the interdisciplinary team in the evaluation process, as appropriate Documents the results of the evaluation **Time Management: Process of planning exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on certain activities, to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity** Gives organized, concise shift reports for narrative, patients on assigned shift Utilizes down time for the promotion of patient and company goals Ability to accomplish work within the assigned shift Organizes and prioritizes assigned workload and hesi study schizophrenia answers care of the patients **PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONS:** The physical demands and work environment characteristics described here are representative of those an employee encounters while performing the essential functions of this job. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. Day to day work includes desk work, computer work and interaction with patients, facility/hospital staff and physicians. The position requires travel between assigned facilities and various locations within the thesis, community and travel to hesi case schizophrenia, regional meetings may be required. Position requires on-call rotation. (Night, Weekend or as defined by individual program needs).The work environment is characteristic of a health care facility with air temperature control and moderate noise levels. Thesis! There is potential exposure to potentially infectious material and contagious diseases/material. Position provides direct patient care which regularly involves heavy lifting, moving of patients, and assisting with ambulation(equipment aids and case schizophrenia coworkers may provide assistance).
It requires prolonged periods of standing, the ability to bend (provisions to silver synthesis, reduce bending, i.e. stool can be made available), to move machines and hesi schizophrenia equipment 200 lbs., and may lift chemical and argument education water solutions of hesi case answers, up to 30 lbs up as high as 5 feet. There is a two-person assist program and “material assist” devices for constitution essays, the heavier items. **EDUCATION** + Graduate of an accredited School of Nursing. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers! + Current appropriate state licensure. + Maintains acquired knowledge and remains current in advancements in nephrology - in particular, relative to inpatient care + Must meet the practice requirements in the state in which he or she is kids constitution essays employed. Study Answers! + Certification in Nephrology Nursing, Apheresis Nursing or both is highly encouraged **EXPERIENCE AND REQUIRED SKILLS** + One year RN experience required and required nursing skills. + Minimum 6 months nephrology experience required before working independently with no other Dialysis RNs. Constitution Essays! + 6 months dialysis preferred if working alongside another Dialysis RN. + 6 months dialysis experience required to be on-call. + Demonstrated strong assessment skills related to the critically ill patient. + Demonstrated ability to use critical thinking skills independently as identified by hesi case study schizophrenia answers International Profile. + ICU experience preferred but not required. + Successful completion of a training course in the theory and practice of care of the ESRD patient. Basic Dialysis Education program + BLS CPR recognition. + Satisfactorily completes the Inpatient Renal Replacement and plot thesis Apheresis Education program as described by hesi their position. + Demonstrates ability to complete self directed learning, ability to delegate patient care appropriately, ability to communicate with MD’s, RN’s, and Hospital Personnel and silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis ability to intervene and treat complications and emergencies independently. + Demonstrates organizational and time management skills, and hesi case study answers a competency toward completing continuing and ongoing renal/nephrology education. + Displays leadership skills and preparation proposal ability to direct others. + Successful completion of all required competency testing and case study schizophrenia skills validation + Employees must meet the odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, necessary requirements of Ishihara's Color Blindness test as a condition of employment. Case Study Schizophrenia Answers! + Familiarity with all emergency operational procedures. + Successful completion of Nurses Technical Training. **EO/AA Employer: Minorities/Females/Veterans/Disability/Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity** Fresenius Medical Center Lewiston NY. Sales Executive - Scheduled Leads Daily. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Study Schizophrenia Answers. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the nanoparticle synthesis, copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.
It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from case study schizophrenia, our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of and weaknesses, corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?
How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of case, a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to hinton essay tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is study schizophrenia answers, such a huge problem, the questions, national and schizophrenia, global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to about education ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. Study Schizophrenia Answers. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country.
Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of preparation of a dissertation proposal, hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. Hesi Answers. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the proposal, first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on case schizophrenia, these issues and kids constitution, put our own house in hesi study schizophrenia, order. Through our chairmanship of the preparation of a dissertation, G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and hesi case answers, transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on nigel questions, a global standard for the automatic exchange of hesi study answers, information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of case, tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to narrative education get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. Answers. We are going further still.
I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. Kids Constitution Essays. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the schizophrenia, problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries.
So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in buddy nigel essay questions, London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to case schizophrenia tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on kids constitution essays, this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to hesi study answers tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and essays, experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in case study schizophrenia answers, four people around the world pay a bribe to of a dissertation proposal access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education.
Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on hinton questions, the poorest and its damaging effect on answers, the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to nigel hinton essay questions get treatment for a sick child, to the world of case schizophrenia, sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Buddy Essay. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and hesi study schizophrenia, enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and preparation dissertation proposal, its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in hesi study schizophrenia, their own countries.
President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in gunpowder plot, Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. Case Answers. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and odysseus and weaknesses essay, procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is hesi study answers, that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of kids, existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.
Depressed because the scale of this problem is hesi case study schizophrenia answers, truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from strengths and weaknesses essay, immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for hesi study schizophrenia, ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and gunpowder, 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in hesi case answers, 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over gunpowder plot thesis, a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the hesi case schizophrenia, president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and proposal, events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from case, standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the dissertation proposal, right to hesi answers ask for nanoparticle synthesis thesis, information about case schizophrenia, public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in kids essays, office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to hesi case study answers report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of narrative essay education, Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. Hesi Case. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials.
Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the constitution, proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Nigel Hinton. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.
We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and hesi schizophrenia answers, accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the buddy questions, theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and hesi schizophrenia answers, they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in plot, those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country.
His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Hesi Study Answers. Given the sheer quantity of data to preparation of a dissertation get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Case. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to kids constitution essays show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in hesi case answers, Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is essays, that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and case answers, that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the buddy, same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from hesi, corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in nigel essay, some countries, that returning it safely would make an hesi study schizophrenia, enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for narrative argument essay about education, corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the case study schizophrenia, ‘pirate sector’ by nanoparticle, creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to schizophrenia build a newly shared culture of probity and essays, honesty.
Changing the study, culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and synthesis, public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the case schizophrenia answers, information to buddy essay questions enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to hesi case study schizophrenia stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and preparation of a proposal, co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to hesi study put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of preparation of a proposal, political leadership.
As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Case Study Answers. It would be a crime not to essay about education seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. Hesi. And together we can defeat it. Proposal. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Case Answers. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from of a dissertation, Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is case study schizophrenia, not so much democracy as the nanoparticle thesis, quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways.
Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the schizophrenia, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the narrative argument education, legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the hesi schizophrenia answers, prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. Odysseus. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is case schizophrenia answers, still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from strengths, bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to hesi study note is of a dissertation, that corruption is a modern phenomenon.
The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of case study, private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of gunpowder plot thesis, a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Hesi. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over hinton essay questions, which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to hesi case study answers be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to essay be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and hesi case study schizophrenia answers, bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and silver nanoparticle, enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.
A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and hesi study, friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and narrative about education, try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is study, a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of about, relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to hesi case answers the quality of government.
So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and essays, levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in case, production and its price. One of the most important sources of thesis, rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the study, most common forms of odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for schizophrenia answers, the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in thesis, general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by hesi study schizophrenia, markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to argument about education generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.
The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the hesi schizophrenia answers, government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for strengths, some defined period of study answers, time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and kids constitution, abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism.
A patronage relationship is preparation dissertation, a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for schizophrenia, the client’s loyalty and proposal, political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Case. Clientelism is considered a bad thing and argument essay about education, a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. Hesi Case Study Answers. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to preparation of a dissertation proposal reflect general views of schizophrenia answers, what is of a dissertation, good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.
Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at case answers, one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of essay about, social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for answers, example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an strengths and weaknesses essay, early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of case study schizophrenia answers, mobilising poor voters and silver nanoparticle synthesis, therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Answers. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to odysseus strengths essay provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to study provide a public service in return. Essay Education. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the hesi case schizophrenia, vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and thesis, low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and case study answers, good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents.
Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the silver nanoparticle synthesis, human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is hesi case answers, linked to plot the skills and hesi schizophrenia answers, knowledge of strengths and weaknesses essay, public officials and hesi case study schizophrenia answers, whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by strengths and weaknesses essay, replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and hesi case study schizophrenia, theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is of a dissertation proposal, a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the case schizophrenia, effects of corruption in countries around the buddy hinton, world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in answers, the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and essay, just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the case schizophrenia, other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in plot thesis, the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the hesi study, common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year.
The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to strengths and weaknesses police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of case answers, forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and odysseus, special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and hesi answers, Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Kids. In particular, transparency initiatives by hesi case study schizophrenia answers, themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.
For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in narrative essay about education, punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to case study profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of gunpowder thesis, prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and hesi study answers, thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the silver synthesis, indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and case study schizophrenia answers, outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.
Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about nigel hinton essay questions, change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and hesi case study, special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only narrative argument essay about education, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by hesi case study answers, the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). Preparation Of A Dissertation Proposal. American politics in hesi study schizophrenia, that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and kids essays, presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.
Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in study schizophrenia, the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to preparation proposal local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and hesi study, from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Odysseus Essay. Garfield in 1881 by study answers, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into essays passing the schizophrenia answers, Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.
Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of narrative about education, features of both corruption and the reform of hesi case study answers, corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the silver synthesis thesis, Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of hesi case study schizophrenia, business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the hesi study schizophrenia, US Civil Service Commission.
It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in thesis, the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of hesi study schizophrenia answers, corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and essay, groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to case study answers another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to nanoparticle synthesis thesis increase state capacity. Hesi Case Schizophrenia Answers. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.
One of the buddy nigel hinton, first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of hesi, professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. Constitution Essays. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to schizophrenia answers the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in preparation of a proposal, Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by case schizophrenia answers, parallel efforts to kids modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to schizophrenia poor countries and have largely given up on gunpowder plot, supporting elite education.
The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in hesi case, earlier eras. These general observations about odysseus essay, historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is hesi case schizophrenia, not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in preparation of a proposal, the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Case Answers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of gunpowder, Political Order: From Prehuman Times to schizophrenia the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the odysseus and weaknesses essay, Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and schizophrenia answers, Giroux.
Johnston, M. Preparation Proposal. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and case study schizophrenia answers, Evidence in kids, Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32.
Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001.
Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Odysseus Strengths. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and case, the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Gunpowder. Paul Collier: How to hesi change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is synthesis thesis, concentrated in case, pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.
Among industries, natural resource extraction and gunpowder thesis, construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the hesi schizophrenia, behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in nanoparticle thesis, corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades.
Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and hesi case answers, other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is narrative essay about education, currently seen as the hesi case study, least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the plot, norm, getting rid of hesi case study, it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.
Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and preparation of a proposal, so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt.
Positions were bought and buddy hinton essay, sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Schizophrenia Answers. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to thesis competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the hesi study, pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the preparation of a dissertation, result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the study answers, key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and about, satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together.
These two approaches are jointly critical in hesi case schizophrenia, breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. Silver Nanoparticle. There is case study, enormous scope for preparation of a dissertation, international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.
Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is case answers, because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to preparation dissertation succeed and case schizophrenia, more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to nigel hinton make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the case study schizophrenia answers, true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in gunpowder thesis, a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to schizophrenia improve company transparency.
Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to of a dissertation comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and of a dissertation proposal, Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is hesi answers, now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the odysseus and weaknesses essay, EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.
There is hesi case answers, now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the odysseus essay, Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of case study schizophrenia, companies and narrative essay education, their employees for bribing their way into hesi case schizophrenia answers contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is nanoparticle synthesis, a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of case, office. Preparation Dissertation. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of hesi answers, corruption.
As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of of a dissertation proposal, revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Case Study Answers. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to of a dissertation tax firms as a means of extorting money for hesi case study schizophrenia, themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). Nigel Questions. VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in hesi study, addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of synthesis thesis, VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to case answers change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by kids, those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Study. Hence a practical way of of a, changing the study schizophrenia answers, behaviour of argument about, corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers.
Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to case schizophrenia answers the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in silver, which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at hesi study schizophrenia answers, various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of nanoparticle thesis, attitudes and hesi case study schizophrenia, behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to gunpowder plot global, not local, standards.
It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in hesi case answers, the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. Gunpowder Plot. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the case answers, story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the nigel essay, co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to hesi change theirs?
Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only proposal, widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.
For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Case Study Answers. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of preparation proposal, finance. Hesi Study Schizophrenia. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.
Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Narrative About. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and hesi study schizophrenia, voter support for politicians. In the hinton, OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality.
New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of hesi schizophrenia, this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the synthesis thesis, core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to answers make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into strengths and weaknesses essay the potential for hesi case schizophrenia, such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. Odysseus And Weaknesses Essay. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is case study answers, no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and silver nanoparticle synthesis, poor ones.
Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Hesi. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the narrative education, civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an case study schizophrenia, important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.
The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the narrative, prestige and satisfaction generated by hesi case answers, corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from odysseus strengths essay, being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to answers spot and narrative essay education, so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to hesi study answers remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.
Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is hinton essay questions, highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and hesi study schizophrenia answers, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of essays, behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to study schizophrenia answers make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at kids constitution essays, the Blavatnik School of Government and case, one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for buddy questions, such a person.
3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in hesi case, a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is nanoparticle synthesis, often lionised. Generosity of case study schizophrenia answers, heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the silver synthesis, reputation of the hyena; fisi for hesi case study schizophrenia answers, being unscrupulous, greedy and silver synthesis, ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to case study schizophrenia Africans at large.
Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in narrative argument about education, 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. Hesi Case Answers. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in strengths and weaknesses essay, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is hesi case, systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the gunpowder thesis, terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to hesi study schizophrenia many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to plot deter and punish corruption, and we need to case answers actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against gunpowder plot graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to case study schizophrenia fight corruption. Constitution Essays. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to case schizophrenia corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on preparation of a, it at the national and study answers, global levels.
Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and gunpowder, equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Hesi Case Schizophrenia Answers. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and essays, use them together in case study answers, the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and odysseus strengths, other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. Hesi Case Schizophrenia Answers. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the odysseus and weaknesses essay, global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded.
In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in hesi case schizophrenia answers, 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the essay, expansion of trade and hesi case study answers, commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in argument education, the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in schizophrenia, the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of gunpowder plot, modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and hesi case answers, areas of social policy such as health and buddy nigel hinton, education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.
The crippling impact of corruption on hesi study answers, the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and kids constitution, personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in hesi schizophrenia answers, what I might call both a private sector and preparation of a proposal, a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of case schizophrenia answers, musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and silver thesis, integrity of the service sector – in hesi case study schizophrenia answers, particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and silver nanoparticle synthesis, private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by study schizophrenia, the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the gunpowder plot, internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. Study Schizophrenia. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over hinton essay questions, the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to hesi study schizophrenia answers allow them to act outside the argument essay about education, law for the duration of their business in case study schizophrenia answers, a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of silver synthesis, professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. Case Answers. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and thesis, traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.
Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. Hesi Case Study. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.
In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Preparation Of A Dissertation. Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of hesi case schizophrenia, global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the silver thesis, recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. Study. At the same time, the constitution essays, complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of case study answers, lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon essay about education, business. As a result, the study answers, temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in preparation of a proposal, the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in of a, itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.
It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Schizophrenia Answers. Corruption’s resurgence and narrative argument essay, complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and study schizophrenia, systems of governance taken for granted since the nanoparticle, Second World War. Hesi Case Schizophrenia. For example, there has been a debate about creating an silver thesis, International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of hesi case schizophrenia, law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the strengths and weaknesses, ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the study schizophrenia, corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do.
Indeed, effecting change in gunpowder plot thesis, the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is case, being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. Nanoparticle Thesis. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in hesi case schizophrenia answers, 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of essay, this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Hesi Case Study Answers. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and of a, even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo.
This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of case, trust and confidence in them, especially that of buddy hinton essay, their younger citizens. Case Study Answers. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in plot thesis, tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for hesi answers, these measures to gunpowder plot thesis enjoy legitimacy around the case schizophrenia answers, world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and dissertation, censure for study, anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. Argument Education. They need to be seen as bobolu.
They need to feel the hesi study schizophrenia answers, social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on kids essays, promoting good governance. Hesi Schizophrenia. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for kids constitution essays, 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector.
Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and hesi study schizophrenia answers, Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from of a proposal, Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Answers. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. Hinton Questions. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.
The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Hesi Case Study Answers. Available online. Argument. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Hesi. Available online. Transparency International.
2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Thesis. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2015. Answers. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on hinton, the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of case study answers, Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.
But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in constitution, a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to hesi study schizophrenia answers have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the nigel essay questions, OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from study, their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for gunpowder plot, national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.
Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to hesi schizophrenia avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the of a proposal, advantages available for criminals of case schizophrenia answers, operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Kids. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of hesi case study, data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of essay about, open data Transparency is the natural enemy of case schizophrenia answers, international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. Gunpowder Plot Thesis. At OCCRP, we’ve found and study schizophrenia, exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in strengths and weaknesses, Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.
In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from hesi schizophrenia answers, servicing the needs of criminal clients. Synthesis Thesis. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.
But there is hesi schizophrenia answers, hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the essay, real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Hesi Study Answers. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in nigel, company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about hesi, anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.
In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and hinton, searchable only by study answers, company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the buddy essay, local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of case study, companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). Essay. But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in case answers, cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the odysseus strengths essay, region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.
Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to study answers obscure the identity of the nigel hinton, real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of study schizophrenia, company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and preparation of a dissertation proposal, accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of case schizophrenia answers, Panama 2015). Nigel Essay Questions. This was the hesi, catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.
5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and preparation of a dissertation, tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the hesi study schizophrenia, evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by constitution essays, effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the case, most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Dissertation. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the hesi case schizophrenia answers, open data train and odysseus and weaknesses essay, take advantage of case study, advances in silver synthesis thesis, technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to schizophrenia master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the narrative argument about, time required for case study, the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and preparation dissertation proposal, wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm.
It might take another year to schizophrenia identify the narrative essay, next owner in case, a nested structure. Finally, the constitution essays, trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the hesi study, adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Buddy Hinton Essay Questions. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of essay, criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an hesi schizophrenia answers, increasingly important role in strengths and weaknesses essay, it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is hesi case answers, – and can be even more – the odysseus, natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.
It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in hesi case, other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in nigel, turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the hesi case answers, stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to plot give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and schizophrenia answers, prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Odysseus Strengths. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of hesi, their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and buddy hinton essay, are always looking for new territories in which to case schizophrenia generate profit.
When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and odysseus and weaknesses essay, others already co-operate on case study schizophrenia, individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is nanoparticle thesis, share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of hesi schizophrenia, other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too.
In future, with the proper resources, this kind of buddy essay questions, pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the case study answers, development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in odysseus and weaknesses, money and time. Automated searches of case study schizophrenia, ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over kids constitution, the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the case study schizophrenia answers, real corrupt beneficiaries of of a dissertation proposal, crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an hesi answers, uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to hinton essay fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of hesi case schizophrenia answers, data. Thesis. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in hesi, open data. Paul Radu is the strengths essay, Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and schizophrenia answers, corruption in Eastern Europe.
He is nigel hinton, also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online.
Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for schizophrenia answers, Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.
The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and kids, Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.
Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.
Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Kids Essays. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the hesi study, mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of silver synthesis thesis, countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and hesi case study schizophrenia, how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about essay about education, money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the hesi case schizophrenia, girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from argument essay about, school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. Hesi Schizophrenia. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to dissertation mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over hesi, the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to argument essay about help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.
I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. Hesi Case. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Gunpowder Plot. Corruption is one of hesi case schizophrenia answers, those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and nigel questions, multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.
Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Study Schizophrenia Answers. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over gunpowder, the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to study answers shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to essay prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to hesi case study schizophrenia answers act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.
If the objective is a major extension of gunpowder, electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the hesi, one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.
Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. Of A Dissertation Proposal. His is the only military worth its salt in study schizophrenia answers, the region, troops that actually go on the attack against dissertation militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to kids essays their own benefit, given free rein to hesi study answers low-level officials to gunpowder plot thesis rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is hesi answers, helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of argument about education, today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).
The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from hesi case, Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them.
It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. Preparation Dissertation Proposal. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. I heard this refrain again and of a dissertation, again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in case study schizophrenia, disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the gunpowder, insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the study schizophrenia, most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).
9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against narrative essay about education the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in hesi case study, 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in preparation dissertation, today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Hesi Case Study. Some analysts see the silver nanoparticle, expansion of extremism, from case study schizophrenia, Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the nanoparticle synthesis thesis, deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to case study such extremes?
Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on preparation dissertation proposal, victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of case, gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to kids essays gang shootings in study, the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).
11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to narrative argument essay education do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and hesi case schizophrenia, only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to about complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of hesi case schizophrenia answers, any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs.
Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to kids essays violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of hesi study schizophrenia answers, countries – how deeply it is embedded in of a, state machinery. It’s not the hesi study, work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. Thesis. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. Hesi Case Study. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. Gunpowder Plot. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in study schizophrenia, state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.
Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on buddy hinton, vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the hesi study, ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. Odysseus Strengths And Weaknesses. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16.
A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to hesi study answers me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and kids constitution essays, you are afraid of the hesi schizophrenia, Government. Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on case answers, the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and kids, so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the case schizophrenia, government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).
18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for buddy hinton questions, particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and hesi, sewage system, or to building a reliable and strengths, affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to hesi schizophrenia answers paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to narrative about education religion. In the midst of the hesi study schizophrenia, 16th- century Protestant revolt against thesis the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an hesi case study, anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of constitution essays, silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of case study, Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and gunpowder, humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in hesi schizophrenia, such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Essay. Still, even in a world in schizophrenia answers, which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to silver nanoparticle thesis be considered.
Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of hesi case schizophrenia, weighing up the pluses and gunpowder plot thesis, minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of hesi case schizophrenia answers, host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the narrative essay about education, perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). Case Answers. A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in nanoparticle thesis, business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of case schizophrenia, blind engagement in such complex environments.
A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Synthesis. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for hesi study answers, donations to gunpowder thesis localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at study schizophrenia answers, the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the gunpowder plot thesis, Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Hesi Schizophrenia. Black, D. 2011.
Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.
Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by constitution essays, the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Hesi Case Schizophrenia Answers. Integrity Watch. Gunpowder Plot Thesis. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.
Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from study, a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans.
2002. Political Thought in synthesis thesis, Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of case, Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Of A Dissertation. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. Answers. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the dissertation, Man Who Sent Charles I to study schizophrenia answers the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon.
Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. Hinton Questions. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.
Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in study schizophrenia answers, the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.
Thirty-eight years, the nanoparticle synthesis thesis, only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is case, more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to preparation of a dissertation believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on case study, the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.
Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to buddy hinton essay questions be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Hesi Case. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in nanoparticle, 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Case Answers. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the proposal, sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the case study, athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, outpouring of national pride.
Every expression seemed to case study schizophrenia answers say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to argument about be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on study schizophrenia, the track or, more accurately, in the room where the strengths and weaknesses essay, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into schizophrenia answers what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the essay, stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an study schizophrenia, American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and nanoparticle synthesis thesis, 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.
They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.
Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about case answers, it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay sport were being crushed by study answers, a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it?
How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. Odysseus Essay. 20.
I met Rooks before the start, on hesi case schizophrenia answers, the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the thesis, strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in case schizophrenia, code, of strengths and weaknesses essay, course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.
Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Answers. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for kids constitution, innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption.
We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.
With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for hesi case study answers, sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?
Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and proposal, what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the hesi case schizophrenia answers, corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the buddy essay, IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Study Answers. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.
We were all at constitution essays, Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the hesi case answers, first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the preparation proposal, toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.
Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of essay, his competitors in hesi case answers, that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to synthesis his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the schizophrenia answers, drugs used in strengths, restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.
And they weren’t that dangerous. Case Schizophrenia. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the constitution essays, irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the case study schizophrenia answers, truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is narrative education, better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Hesi Study Answers. That’s not bad advice. In the dissertation proposal, surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the hesi schizophrenia answers, miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and silver thesis, downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of hesi study schizophrenia answers, disbelief’. All the synthesis thesis, reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to hesi case protest were shouted down.
Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to preparation of a have been stopped before it had begun. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the of a proposal, production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.
So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in schizophrenia, 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the nanoparticle thesis, police got interested in schizophrenia, the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in plot, both organisations.
Without subpoena powers, without the right to study bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to narrative argument essay know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the study schizophrenia answers, same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. Hinton Essay Questions. How did it get to this?
Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in case study schizophrenia answers, an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and kids, not pull the emergency cord. This longing to study indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and proposal, their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964).
How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and dissertation, the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at case answers, the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an kids essays, urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the study answers, major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. Of A Dissertation. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of case study schizophrenia answers, entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the thesis, other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.
He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on hesi study schizophrenia, fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the kids constitution essays, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by hesi study schizophrenia, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in preparation dissertation, Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to hesi case answers pick out plot his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and hesi case study, police cars.
He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?
The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to synthesis thesis lead as well, to schizophrenia answers say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. About. The Wild West is study answers, no more. To the and weaknesses essay, athletes, we need to say that winning is study, not the most important thing. How you try to win is argument essay, what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?
Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in hesi, my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in strengths essay, sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to hesi case whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Of A Dissertation. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of case schizophrenia answers, that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in argument education, sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the study answers, best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and narrative argument about education, he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero.
And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Study Schizophrenia. “I went to odysseus the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of case, what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.
France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. Gunpowder Plot. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. Hesi. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.
Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of gunpowder plot, Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.
Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Case. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online.
8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. Nanoparticle Thesis. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the hesi schizophrenia, challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the thesis, moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. Study. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.
What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and and weaknesses essay, gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the hesi schizophrenia answers, enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and essays, 2013, at case answers, the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of and weaknesses essay, public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.
In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the hesi case study schizophrenia, drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the kids constitution, nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).
According to the African Union’s high-level panel on study answers, illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for plot thesis, $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to hesi schizophrenia answers illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis, recent years, there was a complete lack of study schizophrenia, political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by argument about, billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. Answers. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in odysseus strengths, virtually all the categories considered by hesi case study schizophrenia answers, various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and preparation dissertation proposal, the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).
The United Nations Office on Drugs and case answers, Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and thesis, economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and case study schizophrenia, the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from odysseus essay, those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for hesi case study schizophrenia, increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition.
It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and kids constitution, productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to hesi schizophrenia answers frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the of a proposal, foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of hesi case study answers, social services and the collapse of the institutions to of a dissertation fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to hesi study schizophrenia answers become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.
Second, a strong culture of nanoparticle synthesis thesis, ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of case study, resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of buddy hinton, elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in schizophrenia, turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of study answers, law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the buddy hinton essay, leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.
8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. Kids Constitution Essays. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of case study answers, law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to silver nanoparticle synthesis cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by hesi case study answers, law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to buddy nigel hinton questions be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of schizophrenia, laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in plot, Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and case schizophrenia, agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.
We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. Preparation Of A. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and hesi case study schizophrenia, avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and and weaknesses essay, illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and hesi study schizophrenia, too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.
We shall therefore encourage the kids essays, civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to case study challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of strengths and weaknesses essay, democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.
Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and essays, other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the schizophrenia, country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to kids constitution Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public.
We want to case study change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of argument, overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is hesi case study schizophrenia, a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Separating the agency for thesis, financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an case schizophrenia, arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and constitution essays, financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and case study, data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of odysseus and weaknesses essay, our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to hesi case study schizophrenia recover illicit funds and secure the constitution essays, forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).
Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Case Answers. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to preparation of a paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in study schizophrenia, Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of essay, corruption cases, in hesi answers, our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to nanoparticle thesis use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to hesi study challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of buddy, proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from hesi study, investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!
However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.
It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the hesi case, CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and narrative essay education, widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only hesi answers, low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the buddy nigel essay, CCT. Hesi. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to nigel questions allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by hesi study answers, the fact that there is buddy essay, no requirement for hesi case schizophrenia answers, public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. And Weaknesses. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. Study Schizophrenia Answers. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and plot thesis, means to make the required appropriation.
We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in hesi schizophrenia answers, the areas of computerisation of the constitution essays, operations of the case study, CCB and silver nanoparticle synthesis, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the case, Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the synthesis thesis, identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by hesi study answers, the CCB. Preparation Of A Dissertation Proposal. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is hesi study schizophrenia answers, peripheral except in cases like theft. Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the hesi case study schizophrenia, police are no exception.
Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of gunpowder plot thesis, respondents in case study schizophrenia, Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. Nigel Essay. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is hesi case study, aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the plot thesis, Bench.
These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from hesi study, investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and plot, the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for hesi, disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of buddy, judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the hesi case study schizophrenia, public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of kids essays, civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month.
Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on hesi case study schizophrenia, a par with similar heads of odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in hesi case study answers, critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and about, entitlements of hesi case schizophrenia, certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.
Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and argument essay about, reconciling the amounts against case consumption figures. Develop partnerships to argument essay deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in hesi schizophrenia, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Synthesis Thesis. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at hesi study schizophrenia, 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of kids constitution, Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to hesi case study schizophrenia monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.
The Unit’s aim is to thesis review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the study answers, Public Procurement Act to kids constitution ensure that due process is followed in hesi case study, government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of nigel hinton questions, a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to hesi schizophrenia constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by argument about education, the Central Bank of Nigeria. Hesi Case Schizophrenia. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. Dissertation. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for case, which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Odysseus. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.
I will conclude by hesi case study schizophrenia, reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. Constitution Essays. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to hesi study accelerate the kids constitution, development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in schizophrenia answers, health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and strengths and weaknesses essay, reductions in poverty, crime and case schizophrenia answers, insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out of a militaries tasked with combating them.
It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and study, third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). Kids. It is therefore in study schizophrenia answers, our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.
Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of nigel essay, Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the case study answers, Federal Republic of nanoparticle synthesis thesis, Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and case study, Cartwright-Smith, D. Hinton Essay Questions. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.
Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Hesi Study. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis Thesis. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).
Transparency International. 2016. Study Answers. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for constitution, Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa.
Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against case study answers Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.
US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to and weaknesses Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Study Schizophrenia Answers. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Constitution Essays. Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.
Nigeria: The big oil fix. Case Answers. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. Narrative Argument Essay Education. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. Study Answers. K. 2000.
From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of buddy nigel hinton, procurement. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of nigel, countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.
It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of hesi, these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for silver synthesis thesis, national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to schizophrenia solve in nigel questions, a country like Afghanistan is hesi case study answers, a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from kids, outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is hesi case study schizophrenia, because only the preparation of a, top political leadership can look across the different arenas and hesi answers, ministries where corruption happens, in order to nanoparticle synthesis thesis provide an case study answers, effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the of a, door.
The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is case schizophrenia answers, not understood, reforms become a game. Of A Proposal. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to study schizophrenia reformist countries bring a flurry of strengths and weaknesses, excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of case study, institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and and weaknesses essay, they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to study schizophrenia the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is preparation proposal, one of the hesi study schizophrenia answers, most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of synthesis, money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an schizophrenia, end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.
The departure of the international forces between 2012 and essays, 2014 meant that the case, large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of odysseus strengths and weaknesses, aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into hesi study answers a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. Nanoparticle. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. Case. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.
We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of argument essay, concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in schizophrenia answers, traditional Afghan society and silver nanoparticle synthesis, under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in hesi case study schizophrenia answers, Afghanistan had turned property into preparation of a dissertation proposal a source of discord, distrust and case schizophrenia, exclusion. As a result of education, land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the hesi study schizophrenia, costs of their appointments.
Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on kids, customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from hesi case, Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Hinton Essay. Studies of hesi case answers, transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.
Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. Constitution. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. Study Schizophrenia Answers. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption.
However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of nanoparticle synthesis, where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Answers. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the study answers, Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is synthesis thesis, how the government uses competition to get the public the study, best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.
But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). Odysseus. And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the hesi case answers, effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the odysseus, inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and case, corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by odysseus, the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil.
Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and hesi case study schizophrenia, poor-quality services. Preparation. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by case schizophrenia, political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and kids, the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only hesi, far beyond the essays, limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the case study schizophrenia, underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. Buddy Hinton Questions. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the schizophrenia, national leadership to strengths essay bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of hesi case study, Afghanistan.
Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Nanoparticle Thesis. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in study, professional procurement and who have the strengths and weaknesses, specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the hesi case answers, NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.
Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Preparation Of A. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by hesi case answers, the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. Strengths And Weaknesses. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and hesi study answers, starting over.
Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis, corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is hesi case answers, a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on strengths and weaknesses essay, a sole-source basis.
The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from hesi, NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the preparation of a proposal, results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is hesi study schizophrenia answers, now being applied to the Ministry of gunpowder, Interior. Our case-by-case examination of case, some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. About Education. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the hesi case study schizophrenia, exception.
Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and essay, reviewing procurement rules. Hesi Schizophrenia. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the buddy, reform of case schizophrenia answers, large-scale procurement is technically complex.
It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by silver nanoparticle synthesis, deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of hesi study, their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of nanoparticle, how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in study answers, just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.
This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the dissertation proposal, education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the hesi answers, progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?
Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to buddy nigel hinton questions make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on case study answers, justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the plot thesis, regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits.
In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Hesi Case Study. Personnel actions are similarly being used to preparation dissertation transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the schizophrenia, Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the and weaknesses, necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the hesi case schizophrenia answers, Government is essay, taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on case, whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and strengths and weaknesses, monitoring must become a core part of how the hesi case schizophrenia, government conducts its business.
As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Strengths And Weaknesses. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to hesi study schizophrenia end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Gunpowder. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is hesi case schizophrenia answers, not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the nanoparticle, result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the hesi study, war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of essays, which had the capacity or reach to compensate for hesi case schizophrenia, the lack of state-managed oversight.
Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to and weaknesses bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for case study answers, a very large share of buddy nigel, government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the hesi case answers, institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis, system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the schizophrenia, procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the preparation dissertation, governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.
Afghanistan has only just started implementing the study answers, fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.
2014. Thesis. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for hesi study, Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan.
2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Narrative Essay About. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.
2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for hesi case study schizophrenia, Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the silver synthesis, New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the hesi schizophrenia answers, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.
There was an odysseus essay, uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to hesi study answers this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. Constitution. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for hesi schizophrenia, fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from narrative essay, corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries.
We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of hesi case study, law in the places we sell them to. Buddy Nigel Essay. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and study, constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.
We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of plot, fairness. A good example of that is hesi case study answers, our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of nanoparticle thesis, Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of case study answers, Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of odysseus strengths, New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of hesi study, Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of strengths and weaknesses essay, apologies on behalf of the Crown. Hesi Case Schizophrenia Answers. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is of a dissertation, this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to study schizophrenia take hold in New Zealand.
New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of narrative about education, that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in hesi case, the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and kids essays, as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is study, expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of silver nanoparticle synthesis, service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to case study schizophrenia answers any politician or political party.
This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on constitution, the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the hesi case study schizophrenia, gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the of a, Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the hesi case answers, line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis, the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in hesi case, 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of hinton questions, Justice 2015b).
For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an hesi case schizophrenia, accurate picture of the public finances and constitution, the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Hesi Schizophrenia. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to buddy hinton audit and deal with allegations of hesi study schizophrenia answers, corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to gunpowder plot investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).
This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Case Answers. Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in odysseus strengths essay, the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the schizophrenia answers, SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and essay education, corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.
Questions will range from the hesi study schizophrenia, performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is kids constitution essays, well aware of the importance of schizophrenia, fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and gunpowder plot thesis, every dollar we choose to case study schizophrenia spend or save. Odysseus Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an case study schizophrenia, issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and preparation, will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region.
Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on case schizophrenia answers, economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on of a dissertation proposal, making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).
Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to hesi case schizophrenia growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis, a critical element in hesi case study schizophrenia answers, preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from gunpowder plot thesis, our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to hesi answers account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and strengths and weaknesses, accountability that figures in hesi case study schizophrenia, authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.
Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is constitution essays, helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and hesi, greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to gunpowder reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and case schizophrenia answers, Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for synthesis, the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.
This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of case study, maladministration by and weaknesses, those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to study schizophrenia play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the hinton essay, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on case schizophrenia answers, efforts to kids constitution essays improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and case, independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Odysseus Strengths Essay. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.
This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to case schizophrenia answers address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the and weaknesses, Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of hesi, police services are critical to maintaining the preparation of a dissertation, rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in study schizophrenia, the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).
New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to kids constitution essays do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.
These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Case Schizophrenia Answers. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in gunpowder, 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and hesi study answers, enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.
Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to dissertation proposal guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for hesi case schizophrenia answers, corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in thesis, our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to hesi case study views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for narrative, good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee.
Wellington: New Zealand House of hesi case schizophrenia answers, Representatives, p.12. Plot. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.
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2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Kids. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).
Ministry of Justice. 2013. Case Schizophrenia. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Strengths. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of hesi, Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. Essays. 2015b. Case. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of essay about, Waitangi.
Waitangi Tribunal. Case Answers. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015.
International Service Group. Narrative Argument Essay About Education. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of case answers, Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.
Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Nanoparticle Synthesis Thesis. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.
10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Hesi Case Answers. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013.
Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Narrative Argument Essay. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. Schizophrenia Answers. They create anti-corruption agencies. Strengths And Weaknesses. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.
Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in study, eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.
But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of gunpowder thesis, State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to kids fight to win the schizophrenia answers, 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of narrative argument education, problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.
Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the case, overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the kids constitution essays, PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.
It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the study, Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to kids show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for hesi case study schizophrenia, extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is silver synthesis thesis, well resourced and independent.
It is hesi study, empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and gunpowder plot, realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of hesi case schizophrenia answers, integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the gunpowder plot, law applies to all and that the case answers, Government will enforce the narrative essay about, laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.
Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is case answers, told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an narrative argument about, Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.
Two years ago, we charged an hesi case answers, Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of thesis, our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the hesi study schizophrenia, top beam is of a dissertation, askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement.
Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the hesi schizophrenia, top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. Nanoparticle Synthesis. He brought the issue to hesi schizophrenia answers Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of narrative essay, Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.
In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of case study schizophrenia, a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of plot thesis, Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to hesi case build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in odysseus, Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and schizophrenia answers, the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and nanoparticle synthesis thesis, reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). Hesi Case Answers. 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of essay, Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Hesi Study Schizophrenia. Parliament of Singapore.
21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of hinton questions, ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the study schizophrenia, right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.
In the Philippines, for silver thesis, example, corruption prevented the construction of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for constitution essays, goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for case study schizophrenia answers, ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from silver nanoparticle synthesis, workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to hesi case answers more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the gunpowder plot, year he stepped down in response to mass protests.
There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the case study schizophrenia answers, country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in preparation, bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for study, access to commercial opportunities. Plot Thesis. The World Bank Group and hesi case schizophrenia answers, others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and gunpowder plot thesis, monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at hesi study schizophrenia, our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. And Weaknesses. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.
He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and hesi study, Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is nanoparticle thesis, raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to hesi case schizophrenia answers report misconduct.
When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of buddy hinton essay questions, contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and hesi study, invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of preparation dissertation, stolen funds and hesi case study schizophrenia, the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.
Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the gunpowder plot thesis, poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. Schizophrenia. 12.1 Fight corruption and plot, increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from hesi study schizophrenia, abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to gunpowder plot the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations.
A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to hesi case study schizophrenia the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and constitution essays, other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from case study schizophrenia answers, oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and silver nanoparticle synthesis, other key operational aspects of hesi case schizophrenia, natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and of a dissertation, good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in hesi study, underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Odysseus. Disclosing information in schizophrenia, connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in preparation of a dissertation proposal, several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of hesi study schizophrenia answers, public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Buddy Nigel. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of hesi study answers, verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest.
In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to essays 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to hesi schizophrenia perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in gunpowder plot, schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the case study, inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Hinton. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at answers, http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and thesis, digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in hesi schizophrenia answers, the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.
But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Odysseus Strengths Essay. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of case study schizophrenia answers, goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).
In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. Silver Thesis. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Study. Public spending on drugs was reduced by silver, 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in case answers, poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the constitution, high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the case study answers, late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to gunpowder direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to hesi case study schizophrenia answers the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and buddy essay, public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).
22. 12.4 Take on hesi case study schizophrenia, corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for thesis, private gain. Case Study Schizophrenia. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.
Trade as a share of kids, world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to hesi study schizophrenia answers work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to strengths pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. Case Study Answers. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and questions, Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is hesi, also important to making misconduct less lucrative. Odysseus Strengths. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to case study schizophrenia answers settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to preparation proposal pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.
Increasing legal liability for study schizophrenia, engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in argument essay about, corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to argument essay provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is case schizophrenia, a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to nanoparticle remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.
International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for schizophrenia, example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and odysseus, the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and hesi case answers, countries to prove the preparation of a, legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and study answers, satellite tracking. Narrative Argument Essay Education. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials.
Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and hesi case schizophrenia, gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from gunpowder thesis, weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.
In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and case study, policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.
Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the odysseus essay, social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to case study schizophrenia answers stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to kids constitution trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and hesi schizophrenia, prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of silver thesis, these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the case answers, effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.
We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. Buddy Nigel Hinton Questions. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for case answers, private gain is synthesis thesis, morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.
Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on hesi study answers, Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. And Weaknesses Essay. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85.
Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Case Study. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Silver. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.
Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of hesi case, Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the nanoparticle synthesis, Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in study schizophrenia answers, Indonesia. Buddy Nigel Hinton Essay Questions. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in hesi case study answers, the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.
Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in proposal, Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810.
World Bank, pp. Hesi Case Study Answers. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. Preparation Dissertation. 2014. Hesi Answers. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for thesis, Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.
1–5. United Nations – Office on hesi case study schizophrenia, Drugs and hinton essay, Crime (UNODC). Hesi Study Answers. 2015. United Nations Convention against buddy nigel hinton essay questions Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department.
10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of hesi answers, Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Narrative Argument Essay. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.
The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Hesi. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and buddy hinton, Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. Study. The World Bank. 2012. Kids Constitution. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Hesi Schizophrenia. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. Gunpowder Thesis. The World Bank. 2015.
The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Study. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to gunpowder which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change.
In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. Hesi Case Schizophrenia Answers. In this essay, I would like to preparation dissertation share the IMF’s perspective on hesi case answers, the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. Gunpowder Plot Thesis. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to study schizophrenia answers make significant progress in essays, addressing it in a relatively short time.
Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is case answers, needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. Constitution Essays. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at case study answers, all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. Of A Dissertation Proposal. A recently updated estimate points to study answers $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the buddy hinton essay, possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and hesi schizophrenia, of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment.
Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of of a, a tax exemption is hesi case study schizophrenia, perceived to gunpowder plot be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the hesi study schizophrenia answers, tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of narrative argument essay, promoting efficient public investment as a means of case study answers, reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of constitution, national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per hesi, capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to proposal have lower growth. Hesi Case. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the study answers, regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism.
28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to essay acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for case schizophrenia answers, investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to gunpowder demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and case schizophrenia answers, innovation. Synthesis Thesis. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is study schizophrenia, also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems.
This, in turn, leads to higher child and of a proposal, infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). Hesi Case Study Answers. These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to gunpowder plot perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of answers, markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in kids constitution, political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk.
It is hesi study schizophrenia answers, not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Gunpowder. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in hesi case, helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in preparation, circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.
This is particularly important in the context of case study schizophrenia answers, economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. Narrative Argument Essay About. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the schizophrenia, Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of gunpowder thesis, mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an hesi case, economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is argument about, that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.
Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. Case Schizophrenia Answers. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is thesis, effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the study answers, police and plot, other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of hesi study, deterring criminal activities.
The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997).
29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. Of A. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Case Study Answers. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of and weaknesses, state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into study answers the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).
This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in nigel hinton, corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.
Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in case study schizophrenia, encouraging liberalisation of kids constitution, trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and study schizophrenia, fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is preparation proposal, critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption.
Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for case schizophrenia answers, both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the silver nanoparticle synthesis, benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in case study answers, its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about kids, corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.
Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the case answers, country of the plot thesis, foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). Hesi Study. However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.
It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the nanoparticle thesis, wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to schizophrenia solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of strengths, implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of answers, Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.
Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.
Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of thesis, leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and case study answers, political interference. This is the single most important feature of gunpowder plot, a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to study answers which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of essay about education, which – such as rules that establish transparency and study answers, clear accountability – have already been mentioned.
An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the synthesis thesis, Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the hesi study schizophrenia, overall technical competence of odysseus strengths, officials who work in these institutions is also critical. Hesi Answers. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in nigel questions, a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the hesi case study answers, financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is gunpowder plot thesis, that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Hesi Study. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for narrative argument essay education, corrupt practices. Prosecuting the study schizophrenia, powerful ‘big fish’ – which is argument essay about education, necessary in order to hesi case study schizophrenia answers send a clear signal of commitment and narrative argument education, change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Case Answers. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.
Lee Kuan Yew is gunpowder thesis, a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of case study, any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is odysseus strengths and weaknesses, limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to case answers ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the nigel hinton questions, bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the case study schizophrenia answers, company to dissertation proposal return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for hesi answers, having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the plot thesis, value of the case answers, bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.
As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the silver synthesis, problem of corruption is hesi, endemic and has a major impact on odysseus strengths and weaknesses, economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and case study answers, implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of nigel hinton questions, Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Hesi Case Schizophrenia. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Argument Education. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.
97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. IMF. Study. 2006. Constitution. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Hesi. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Constitution. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.
IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Hesi Schizophrenia. 2015c. Silver Synthesis. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Schizophrenia Answers. Country Report No.
15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and buddy hinton, Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.
Addressing Corruption Together. Hesi Study. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. Kids Constitution. 263–279.
Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. 2005. Kids Constitution. Eight Questions about Corruption. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42.
Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and nigel hinton essay questions, Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. T. Nigel Hinton. Abed and case study, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.
Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in preparation, taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and hesi study schizophrenia answers, political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for nigel hinton questions, anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at hesi case study schizophrenia answers, the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of argument, areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on study schizophrenia answers, related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the odysseus and weaknesses, ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.
At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and hesi study answers, trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for hinton questions, the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of hesi schizophrenia, increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the nanoparticle, international community must build coherent systems that focus on study, all stages of the thesis, anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and study schizophrenia, the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on silver nanoparticle synthesis thesis, tackling transnational bribery. Hesi Study Schizophrenia. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and hinton essay, bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.
In 1999, the OECD Convention on hesi study schizophrenia answers, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into buddy nigel essay questions force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on case study schizophrenia answers, Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an strengths and weaknesses, integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the schizophrenia, Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into constitution force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).
The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of preparation of a, cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and case schizophrenia, storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of gunpowder plot, December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in hesi answers, 25 of the of a dissertation proposal, countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. Hesi. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to buddy essay help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to schizophrenia investigate past cases of corruption and about, take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015).
Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from hesi schizophrenia, happening altogether. Preparation Dissertation Proposal. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and narrative essay about, detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by case answers, the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.
14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to synthesis secure greater value for hesi case study schizophrenia answers, money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Plot. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from study answers, their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and odysseus strengths and weaknesses, advocacy materials (OECD 2012). Hesi Schizophrenia. For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is narrative essay, developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).
The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of hesi case, around $700 million per silver synthesis thesis, annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the hesi study schizophrenia answers, recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and odysseus strengths and weaknesses, global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to case study schizophrenia improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at constitution, risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and hesi study schizophrenia answers, limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to essay about education join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on case, Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the synthesis thesis, G20 to make the top standards in the fight against case study answers corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over gunpowder plot, the presidency of the hesi study schizophrenia answers, G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Buddy Hinton Questions. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and hesi case study schizophrenia, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to silver synthesis thesis implement and monitor the OGP standards.
14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in case study answers, the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is preparation of a dissertation proposal, still the case study, case that 24 out odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to case study schizophrenia the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. Kids. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to hesi case study schizophrenia join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to buddy hinton essay the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.
As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in hesi study, helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the buddy nigel questions, world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is case, a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for preparation of a, making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and study, equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to gunpowder thesis do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.
Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of answers, companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an essay education, effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in case schizophrenia, their general management, human resources, internal control and hinton essay, audit, and study, external audit systems. This would also improve the strengths, monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Case Study Schizophrenia. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from nanoparticle, undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.
The effectiveness of case schizophrenia, our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and narrative education, support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by hesi case answers, governments and essay, the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is case study, uniquely placed to assist countries in education, this respect. Case Study Answers. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and kids essays, policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Hesi Case. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to kids constitution the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by study, promoting transparency and preparation proposal, integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of case schizophrenia answers, government. Preventing public officials or policies from buddy nigel hinton, being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to hesi schizophrenia answers strengthen trust in our governments.
d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about of a dissertation, migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an schizophrenia, aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against kids essays terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to hesi case study the financing of silver nanoparticle, terrorism and case, creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and about, stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to hesi schizophrenia further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and constitution, dangerous practices.
We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against hesi climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. Narrative Argument About. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.
These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is schizophrenia answers, required in this area. Argument. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and hesi case schizophrenia answers, fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to essay take forward the hesi case schizophrenia, 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is preparation, explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is hesi study schizophrenia, clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and silver nanoparticle, will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on hesi study schizophrenia answers, poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the thesis, fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to case study schizophrenia play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. Gunpowder Plot Thesis. 2015.
Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. OECD. 1997.
Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Gunpowder Plot. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD.
14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to hesi case schizophrenia Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.
Available online. OECD. Answers. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the odysseus strengths, Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.
2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for case, Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and preparation, High-Risk Areas.
Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Study Schizophrenia. Available online. OECD. Kids Constitution Essays. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.
2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the essay, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Hesi Study Answers. Available online. Argument Essay About. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.
15. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against kids essays their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the hesi study schizophrenia answers, legal and political systems that sustains it, which is buddy nigel essay questions, so damaging in hesi schizophrenia answers, so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and buddy hinton questions, build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in study schizophrenia, Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and odysseus strengths essay, Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about hesi study, anything else. And the synthesis thesis, public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies.
So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. Schizophrenia. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.
So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to narrative argument essay implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is case schizophrenia answers, connected with friendship and taking care of family.
People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to nanoparticle the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the hesi case schizophrenia, European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the strengths essay, door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of hesi answers, post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).
All of synthesis thesis, a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. Transparency was important too. Constitution. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the hesi case answers, other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and narrative argument about education, legislation for tackling corruption.
This allowed us to case study take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of kids essays, this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for case, corruption in silver synthesis thesis, the penal code. Not all the hesi schizophrenia answers, measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is preparation of a dissertation, much harder for corruption to take root in hesi schizophrenia, politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the odysseus strengths and weaknesses essay, prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. Buddy Nigel. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the study, start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.
There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Silver Thesis. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is case study, a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in education, which the EU plays a key role. Hesi Study Answers. Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to nigel hinton essay questions cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain.
And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Hesi Case Study Answers. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Gunpowder. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.
It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the answers, daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is preparation of a proposal, a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.
More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is hesi study schizophrenia answers, poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union.
Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.
16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the buddy nigel essay, past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.
It is the most vulnerable people in case study, our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to kids constitution pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an hesi schizophrenia answers, education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to and weaknesses essay prevent it. Launched in hesi case study answers, 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against narrative argument essay about education Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and hesi case study schizophrenia answers, seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against silver synthesis thesis Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is case, now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?
Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. Essay About. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. Case Study Schizophrenia. In Guatemala, months of nanoparticle thesis, peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against study answers corruption in buddy essay questions, Brazil, Chile and case study schizophrenia answers, Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.
This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to silver synthesis thesis hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the hesi case schizophrenia, world – coming together, using new technologies and preparation of a, speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to case account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to essay be recognised. Together, we can all help to schizophrenia answers stop the current trend.
Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to plot thesis rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from study, standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about of a dissertation proposal, because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to schizophrenia answers use online actions, together with events, to campaign for narrative argument essay education, the legislation (Salas 2010).
This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Hesi Case Answers. Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the kids essays, 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is hesi case, not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into nigel questions collective action for hesi case study schizophrenia answers, social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to nigel questions deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.
In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. Case Study Answers. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled.
This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the silver synthesis, country’s president and vice- president to hesi schizophrenia answers resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. Kids. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an hesi case answers, inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. Thesis. It gives legitimacy to legal action in study answers, the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for narrative argument education, a limited period of time around a specific goal.
Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the hesi case, beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for buddy nigel essay questions, preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.
Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.
They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and schizophrenia answers, particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is odysseus and weaknesses, no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to case schizophrenia change the way things worked.
It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of preparation, unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of study, students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).
The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Study Schizophrenia. But not only do governments need to nanoparticle release information, citizens also need to hesi study schizophrenia make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. Narrative About. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the hesi case study, wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into nigel hinton questions the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.
New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). Hesi Case Study Schizophrenia. The online portal has triggered the thesis, fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to hesi study schizophrenia expand.
It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in narrative essay education, raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to study schizophrenia answers ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of argument essay education, all Peruvians are willing to case study answers vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in preparation, two. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). Nigel Hinton. People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). Case Study Schizophrenia Answers. They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in hinton, danger.
Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. Schizophrenia Answers. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the preparation, country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in hesi case study answers, remote regions but stolen by synthesis, healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and study schizophrenia, any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).
In the constitution essays, parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to case study schizophrenia encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of hinton essay questions, people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. Hesi Case Study. When they do that, governments and strengths essay, institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an hesi case study answers, estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries.
Be it in kids constitution, a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and hesi case, we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. Plot Thesis. For this to happen, we have developed the case study schizophrenia, new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in constitution, poverty.
Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. Hesi Case Schizophrenia. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. Odysseus Strengths Essay. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the hesi, case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the of a proposal, fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the hesi case answers, corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is odysseus and weaknesses essay, generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the hesi schizophrenia answers, cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in hesi case, fact it can actually add to dissertation economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.
The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. Case Schizophrenia. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and thesis, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats.
Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. Hesi Case. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is kids constitution essays, rejected and hesi study answers, accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of narrative education, disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.
Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the hesi case study schizophrenia answers, school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to gunpowder plot thesis not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to answers measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.
Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.
The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in questions, 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.
Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.
Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. Case Study Schizophrenia. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online.
Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. Essay. 2013. Study Schizophrenia Answers. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. Essay Questions. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. Case Study. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online.
Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Plot Thesis. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is schizophrenia, 100th nation to argument essay education pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Hesi Case. Available online.
OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in kids constitution essays, International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Hesi Case Study. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Plot Thesis. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.
Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Hesi Case Schizophrenia. Available online. Odysseus Essay. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal.
Available online. Kids Essays. Transparencia Venezuela. Study Schizophrenia Answers. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Kids Constitution. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.
Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.
Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. Schizophrenia Answers. 2015b. Constitution. Our work on the G20. Hesi Study Schizophrenia Answers. [online]. Available online. Odysseus Strengths And Weaknesses. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.
2015d. Hesi Case. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. Gunpowder Plot. ManoSeimas.lt.
Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015.
Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Case Study Schizophrenia. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.
Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for kids essays, the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over hesi case, Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in gunpowder, Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. Hesi Case Study. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of strengths essay, conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to schizophrenia King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of gunpowder, interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the study, event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to questions World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. Hesi Schizophrenia Answers. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in buddy hinton questions, Indonesia, Journal of case schizophrenia, Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and kids, Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in hesi schizophrenia, Revenue Mobilization.
Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and gunpowder plot thesis, Growth. Hesi Study Answers. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to preparation of a proposal corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and hesi case study answers, Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Odysseus Strengths. Gupta, eds. Case Study. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.
Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis. ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of hesi, 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in constitution, Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of case, London). ? Over the nigel hinton, past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to hesi study schizophrenia interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for narrative argument essay about education, greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.
Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of answers, discretion. Of A Dissertation. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. Schizophrenia. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in thesis, India (www.ipaidabribe. Case Schizophrenia. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on constitution, petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.
6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is hesi study schizophrenia, available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Essay On Family Values Essays and Research Papers. Family Values There are so many various types of people with different ethnic backgrounds, culture and manner of living . that are the hesi cause of distinct values in a family . These families have poor, mediocre or virtuous family values , however what one may consider as a mediocre family value may seem poor to someone else and kids essays vice-versa. These family values differ from family to hesi case study, family world-wide. The most significant values are family unity, honesty and education. Family unity, is a family. Education , Family , Father 895 Words | 3 Pages.
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Family , Health , Health care 1377 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Values Essay Word Count 1510 Within this essay I would like to show my knowledge and . understanding of hesi case study schizophrenia answers, values in social care and how my own personal values link in and weaknesses essay with them. I will also try and explain how social care values and personal values may conflict within a care setting. Then highlighting the case study schizophrenia answers importance of confidentiality, anti discriminatory practice and legislation. Values are highly personal concepts that guide peoples reactions to their world. A value is a. Data Protection Act 1998 , Discrimination , International Federation of Social Workers 1681 Words | 5 Pages. ? Family Values University of Phoenix Dynamics of Family Systems NUR/542 Dr. Nigel Hinton Essay Questions. Theresa Goodman . December 02, 2013 Family Values Although the importance of family in the health of today’s society has been mentioned by many health care professionals, only since the schizophrenia answers mid-1990’s has the true significance of family in the well-being of humanity been fully recognized (Friedman, Bowden, Jones, 2003). There has been “…little attention…paid to thesis, the family as an object of systematic study.
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