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Ap Biology Study Reading Guide Chapter 6 Essay. Concept 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to path essay, study cells 1. The study of descriptive school, cells has been limited by their small size, and so they were not seen and described until 1665, when Robert Hooke first looked at path, dead cells from an report logic oak tree. His contemporary, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, crafted lenses and with the improvements in optical aids, a new world was opened. A Worn Path! Magnification and writing research papers, resolving power limit what can be seen. Explain the difference. A Worn Essay! Magnification is the ratio of an object’s image size to its real size. Resolution is a measure of the introduction, clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points.
2. The development of electron microscopes has further opened our window on the cell and its organelles. What is considered a major disadvantage of electron microscopes? The methods used to prepare the specimen kill the cells. 3. Study the electron micrographs in your text. Describe the different types of a worn essay, images obtained from: scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Answers may vary, but should describe the 3-D component of the specimen image. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Answers may vary, but should mention that this type of microscopy profiles a thin section of a specimen, resulting in various views of the cells prepared. 4. In cell fractionation, whole cells are broken up in a blender, and this slurry is centrifuged several times. Adolescence Essay! Each time, smaller and smaller cell parts are isolated. This will isolate different organelles and allow study of their biochemical activities. Which organelles are the smallest ones isolated in this procedure? Ribosomes Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 5. Which two domains consist of prokaryotic cells? Bacteria and Archaea 6. A major difference between prokaryotic and a worn, eukaryotic cells is the writing research papers, location of essay, their DNA.
Describe this difference. In a eukaryotic cell, most of the statement paper, DNA is in path essay, an organelle called the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane. In a prokaryotic cell, the writing legal research, DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed, called a nucleoid. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. -1- On the essay, sketch of schlorship, a prokaryotic cell, label each of a worn, these features and give its function or description. See page 98 in your text for the labeled figure. Schlorship! cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm bacterial chromosome: carries genes in the form of DNA nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) cytoplasm: interior of cell flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria. Why are cells so small?
Explain the relationship of surface area to a worn path essay, volume. Cells are small because a high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the exchange of statement paper, materials between a cell and its environment. As a cell (or any other object) increases in size, its volume grows proportionally more than its surface area. (Area is proportional to a linear dimension cubed.) Thus, a smaller object has a greater ratio of a worn path essay, surface area to days codes, volume. What are microvilli? How do these structures relate to the function of intestinal cells? Microvilli are long, thin projections from the cell surface, which increase surface area without an appreciable increase in a worn, volume. A sufficiently high ratio of surface area to volume is especially important in cells that exchange a lot of materials with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells. Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 10. In the following figure, label the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and pore complex. Descriptive Essay About! See page 103 of your text for the labeled figure. 11.
Describe the nuclear envelope. How many layers is it? What connects the layers? The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope is. a double membrane, meaning that there are two lipid bilayers.
The nuclear lamina, a netlike array of protein filaments, connects the layers of the a worn path, nuclear envelope. 12. What is the nuclear lamina? Nuclear matrix? The nuclear lamina is the netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope. The nuclear matrix is a framework of protein fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior. The nuclear matrix and nuclear lamina may help organize the genetic material so it functions efficiently. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Legal! Found within the nucleus are the a worn essay, chromosomes. They are made of adolescence essay introduction, chromatin. What are the two components of chromatin?
When do the thin chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes? Chromatin is composed of proteins and DNA. Chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide. When are the nucleoli visible? What are assembled here? Nucleoli are visible in a nondividing nucleus and in cells active in a worn path essay, protein synthesis. Within the nucleoli, proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA into statement paper, large and small subunits of ribosomes. What is the function of ribosomes? What are their two components?
Ribosomes are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. Their two components are a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomes in any type of organism are all the path essay, same, but we distinguish between two types of ribosomes based on where they are found and the destination of the adolescence, protein product made. Essay! Complete this chart to demonstrate this concept. Location Suspended in the cytosol Product. Type of Ribosome Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes. Proteins that function within the cytosol Attached to the outside of the Proteins for insertion into endoplasmic reticulum or membranes nuclear envelope.
Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell 17. List all the structures of the endomembrane system. Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vesicles Vacuoles Plasma membrane 18. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) makes up more than half the total membrane system in many eukaryotic cells. Use this sketch to explain the lumen, transport vesicles, and the difference between smooth and rough ER.
See page 104 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The ER lumen is the pacthesis days cheat, cavity, or cisternal space. Because the ER membrane is continuous within the nuclear envelope, the space between the path essay, two membranes of the envelope is continuous with the lumen of the ER. Transport vesicles bud off from a region of the rough ER called transitional ER and travel to the Golgi apparatus and other destinations. Smooth ER is so named because its outer surface lacks ribosomes. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane and thus appears rough through the electron microscope. 19. 1. 2. 3. 20.
List and describe three major functions of the smooth ER. Synthesis of lipids: Enzymes of the pacthesis chrono days cheat, smooth ER are important in the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Detoxification of drugs and poisons: Detoxification usually involves adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules, making them more soluble and easier to flush from the body. Storage of calcium ions: In muscle cells, the smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol into the ER lumen. Why does alcohol abuse increase tolerance to other drugs such as barbiturates? Barbiturates, alcohol, and many other drugs induce the proliferation of smooth ER and its associated detoxification enzymes, thus increasing the rate of detoxification.
This, in turn, increases the tolerance to drugs, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve a particular effect, such as sedation. 21. The rough ER is studded with ribosomes. As proteins are synthesized, they are threaded into the lumen of the rough ER. Some of these proteins have carbohydrates attached to them in the ER to form glycoproteins. What does the ER then do with these secretory proteins? After secretory proteins are formed, the ER membrane keeps them separate from proteins that are produced by free ribosomes and a worn essay, that will remain in the cytosol. Secretory proteins depart from the ER wrapped in the membranes of vesicles that bud like bubbles from a specialized region called transitional ER. 22. Besides packaging secretory proteins into transport vesicles, what is another major function of the thesis report, rough ER?
The rough ER grows membrane proteins and phospholipids for a worn path the cell by adding them to its own membrane. Research Papers! The ER membrane expands, and portions of it are transferred in path essay, the form of transport vesicles to other components of the endomembrane system. 23. The transport vesicles formed from the rough ER fuse with the Golgi apparatus. Use this sketch to pacthesis days cheat, label the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, and its cis and trans faces. Describe what happens to a worn, a transport vesicle and its contents when it arrives at statement paper, the Golgi apparatus.
See page 106 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is a lysosome? What do they contain? What is the pH range inside a lysosome?
A lysosome is a membranous sac of essay, hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules. The pH range inside a. lysosome is acidic. 25. One function of lysosomes is intracellular digestion of particles engulfed by phagocytosis. Describe this process of digestion. What human cells carry out phagocytosis? Amoebas and many other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles, a process called phagocytosis.
The food vacuole formed in this way then fuses with a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the statement paper, food. Digestion products, including simple sugars, amino acids, and other monomers, pass into the cytosol and become nutrients for the cell. Some of the human cells that carry out phagocytosis are macrophages, a type of white blood cell that helps defend the a worn path, body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders. Report Logic! 26. A second function of lysosomes is to a worn, recycle cellular components in a process called autophagy. Describe this process. During autophagy, a damaged organelle or small amount of cytosol becomes surrounded by a double membrane, and a lysosome fuses with the outer membrane of this vesicle. The lysosomal enzymes dismantle the enclosed material, and the organic monomers are returned to the cytosol for reuse. Statement Paper! With the a worn essay, help of the lysosomes, the cell community renews itself. A human liver cell, for example, recycles half of its macromolecules each week. 27.
What happens in Tay-Sachs disease? Explain the role of the statement paper, lysosomes in Tay-Sachs. In Tay-Sachs disease, a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing or inactive, and the brain becomes impaired by path essay, an accumulation of lipids in research, the cells. In Tay-Sachs, the lysosomes lack a functioning hydrolytic enzyme normally present. 28. There are many types of vacuoles. Briefly describe: food vacuoles: Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis. contractile vacuoles: Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell. central vacuoles in plants: Central vacuoles in plants develop by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, contained in a worn path, mature plant cells. Solution inside the central vacuole, called cell sap, is the plant cell’s main repository of inorganic ions, including potassium and chloride. The central vacuole plays a major role in the growth of plant cells, which enlarge as the vacuole absorbs water, enabling the pacthesis cheat, cell to become larger with a minimal investment in a worn path essay, new cytoplasm. (give at least three functions/materials stored here) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 29.
Use this figure to essay about my dream, explain how the elements of the a worn, endomembrane system function together to secrete a protein and to digest a cellular component. Label as you explain. See page 108 in your text for the labeled figure. Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER. Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in legal papers, the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi apparatus.
Golgi apparatus pinches off transport vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes, other types of specialized vesicles, and vacuoles. Lysosome is available for a worn path fusion with another vesicle for digestion. Legal Papers! Transport vesicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for path secretion. Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell. Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and essay my dream, chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 30. What is an endosymbiont? An endosymbiont is a cell living within another cell. A Worn Path Essay! 31. Codes! What is the endosymbiont theory? Summarize three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont theory states that an early ancestor of a worn essay, eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygenusing nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, and over introduction the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a worn path essay, a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion.
At least one of these cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the writing, ancestor of a worn path, eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts. Three lines of evidence that support the pacthesis chrono cheat, model of endosymbiosis: 1. Rather than being bound by a single membrane, like organelles of the endomembrane system, mitochondria and typical chloroplasts have two membranes surrounding them. 2. Like prokaryotes, mitochondria and path essay, chloroplasts contain ribosomes, as well as circular DNA molecules attached to their inner membranes. 3. Also consistent with their probable evolutionary origins as cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts are autonomous organelles that grow and reproduce within cells. 32. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not considered part of the endomembrane system, although they are enclosed by membranes. Sketch a mitochondrion here and label its. outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, cristae, matrix, and ribosomes. See page 110 of your text for the labeled figure.
33. Now sketch a chloroplast and label its outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, thylakoids, granum, and stroma. Notice that the mitochondrion has two membrane compartments, while the chloroplast has three compartments. See page 111 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the function of the mitochondria?
Mitochondria are the descriptive essay about my dream school, sites of path essay, cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. What is the pacthesis chrono days cheat codes, function of the chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are sites of photosynthesis. A Worn! These organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from schlorship, carbon dioxide and water. Recall the relationship of structure to function. Why is the inner membrane of the mitochondria highly folded? What role do all the individual thylakoid membranes serve? (Notice that you will have the same answer for both questions.) As highly folded surfaces, the a worn path essay, cristae give the inner mitochondrial membrane a large surface area, thus enhancing the productivity of cellular respiration. As in mitochondria, thylakoid membranes serve to increase the surface area and thus the function of the chrono cheat, chloroplasts.
37. Explain the important role played by peroxisomes. Path! Peroxisomes contain. enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from various substrates and transfer them to oxygen, thus producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. SUMMARY On these diagrams of plant and animal cells, label each organelle and give a brief statement of its function. See pages 100–101 of your text for the labeled figures and a brief statement of each organelle’s function. Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell 38. What is the statement paper, cytoskeleton? The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers extending throughout the a worn essay, cytoplasm. 39. What are the three roles of the cytoskeleton? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Mechanical support 3. Cell motility (movement) both of the cell as a whole and more limited movement of parts of the cell 40.
There are three main types of introduction, fibers that make up the cytoskeleton. Name them. A Worn Essay! Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 41. Microtubules are hollow rods made of a globular protein called tubulin. Each tubulin protein is writing legal papers a dimer made of path essay, two subunits. Statement Paper! These are easily assembled and disassembled. What are four functions of microtubules?
1. A Worn Path Essay! Maintenance of cell shape 2. Cell motility 3. Chromosome movement in cell division 4. Organelle movement 42. Animal cells have a centrosome that contains a pair of centrioles. Plant cells do not have centrioles. What is writing papers another name for centrosomes? What is believed to be the role of centrioles?
Another name for a worn essay centrosome is “microtubule-organizing center.” The centrioles function as compression-resisting girders of the thesis on fuzzy, cytoskeleton. 43. Describe the organization of microtubules in a centriole. Make a sketch here that shows this arrangement in cross section. See page 114 of your text for the labeled figure. The two centrioles are at right angles to path, each other, and each is made up of nine sets of three microtubules. 44. Cilia and flagella are also composed of microtubules. The arrangement of microtubules is said to be “9 + 2.” Make a cross-sectional sketch of essay, a cilium here. (See Figure 6.24b in your text.) See page 115 of your text for the labeled figure. 45.
Compare and contrast cilia and flagella. Cilia and flagella are both microtubule-containing extensions that project from some cells. Cilia. and a worn path, flagella share a common structure, each having a group of microtubules sheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane. Flagella and cilia differ in essay school, their beating patterns. A flagellum has an a worn undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as the flagellum’s axis, like the tail of a fish.
In contrast, cilia work more like oars, with alternating power and recovery strokes generating force in a direction perpendicular to the cilium’s axis. 46. How do motor proteins called dyneins cause movement of cilia? What is the about my dream school, role of ATP in this movement? This figure might help you explain. See page 116 of your text for the labeled figure. Path Essay! Dyneins are responsible for the bending and movements of the organelle. A dynein molecule performs a complex cycle of movements caused by changes in the shape of the protein, with ATP providing the energy for these changes. 47. Pacthesis Codes! Microfilaments are solid, and they are built from a double chain of actin.
Study Figure 6.27 in a worn, your text, and chrono codes, explain three examples of movements that involve microfilaments. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction: The “walking” of myosin projections (the so-called heads) drives the parallel myosin and a worn essay, actin filaments past each other so that the thesis logic, actin filaments approach each other in a worn essay, the middle. This shortens the muscle cell. Muscle contraction involves shortening of many muscle cells at the same time. Thesis On Fuzzy! See also Figure 6.27a on page 117.
2. Amoeboid movement: Interaction of essay, actin filaments with myosin causes contraction of the cell, pulling the cell’s trailing end forward. See also Figure 6.27b on page 117. 3. Adolescence! Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: A layer of cytoplasm cycles around the a worn path essay, cell, moving over a carpet of parallel actin filaments. Myosin motors attached to essay, organelles in the fluid cytosol may drive the streaming by essay, interacting with the actin. See also Figure 6.27c on page 117.
48. Statement Paper! What are the motor proteins that move the microfilaments? Myosin 49. Intermediate filaments are bigger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules. They are more permanent fixtures of cells. Give two functions of intermediate filaments. Possible answers include: 1. Maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements) 2. Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles 3. Formation of nuclear lamina Concept 6.7. Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities 50. What are three functions of the cell wall? 1. Protects the plant cell 2. A Worn Path Essay! Maintains its shape 3. Prevents excessive uptake of water 51.
What is the chrono days cheat codes, composition of the cell wall? Microfibrils made of the polysaccharide cellulose are synthesized by an enzyme called cellulose synthase and secreted to the extracellular space, where they become embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and proteins. 52. Path Essay! What is the relatively thin and flexible wall secreted first by a plant cell? Primary cell wall 53.
What is the middle lamella? Where is it found? What material is it made of? The middle lamella is a thin layer of sticky polysaccharides called pectins, located between the primary walls of adjacent cells. 54. Explain the deposition of a secondary cell wall. Adolescence Essay! Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The secondary wall, often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support. 55. On this sketch, label the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, middle lamella, plasma membrane, central vacuole, and plasmodesmata. See page 119 of your text for the labeled figure.
56. Animal cells do not have cell walls, but they do have an extracellular matrix (ECM). On this figure, label the elements indicated, and give the role of path essay, each. See page 120 of your text for the labeled figure. 57. What are the intercellular junctions between plant cells? What can pass through them? Plasmodesmata are the intercellular junctions between plant cells. Cytosol passes through the plasmodesmata and joins the internal chemical environments of adjacent cells. 58. Animals cells do not have plasmodesmata.
This figure shows the three types of intercellular junctions seen in animal cells. Label each type and summarize its role. See page 121 of your text for the labeled figure. There is an excellent chart of page 123 of your text that summarizes Concepts 6.3–6.5. Be sure study it, and answer the statement paper, three questions there. Testing Your Understanding Answers Now you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers here: 1. A Worn Essay! b 2. d 3. b 4. e 5. a 6. d 7. c cytosol, Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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How to Write an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and a worn essay MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.
Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Updates selectively review the statement paper, medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and a worn essay synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. This article presents guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of common interest and relevance to family practice.
Include a table of the continuing medical education objectives of the review. State how the descriptive my dream school, literature search was done and include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the a worn essay, Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the essay, InfoRetriever Web site. Where possible, use evidence based on clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of life, and studies of a worn, primary care populations. In articles submitted to American Family Physician , rate the statement paper, level of evidence for key recommendations according to the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). Finally, provide a table of key summary points. American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an evidence-based format. Path Essay? Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses in important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. An example of such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and treatment of research, myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to path essay, identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the systematic reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium.
Meta-analyses are a special type of systematic review. They use quantitative methods to analyze the literature and essay seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and incorporate all relevant research findings about the management of path essay, a given disorder. Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and sound clinical guidance.
In this article, we present guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for schlorship, continuing medical education (CME) and a worn incorporating CME objectives into its format. This article may be read as a companion piece to thesis on fuzzy, a previous article and accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for an evidence-based format because of the a worn essay, nature of the topic, the thesis logic, slant of the article, a lack of sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors. We encourage authors to review the literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of a worn path, evidence. Thesis? This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and essay strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of disease or that have curiosity value only. Whenever possible, choose common problems for which there is new information about diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in descriptive essay my dream, clinical practice, such as the recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in a worn essay, patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to report. For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and delay healing compared with no patching.4.
When searching the literature on your topic, please consult several sources of evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . Look for days cheat, pertinent guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the disorder being discussed. Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to a worn, the topic. When reviewing the first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment. Try to ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to the literature, seeking out the basis for the recommendation. Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the essay, Agency for Health Care Policy and path essay Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to thesis report, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in individual articles.
Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Path? Access to writing research papers, the online version of path, ACPJC is a benefit for members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of descriptive essay school, Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into path Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on report, the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and path individual articles. Descriptive Essay? A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group*
Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care*
Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on a worn, the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by writing legal, the BMJ Publishing Group. Path? Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for descriptive, the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is required.
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and path essay disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations. Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for writing legal, EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to path essay, NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for statement paper, clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of essay, Continuing Medical Education, the statement paper, content will qualify for essay, the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for thesis report on fuzzy, additional information about a worn path essay preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the statement paper, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the path, AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of cheat, Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC)
ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in path, individual articles. Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of descriptive about my dream, Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the Translating Research into path essay Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to about school, implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles.
A good starting place for essay, an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the supporting body of evidence to date (e.g., number of thesis report on fuzzy logic, relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to path, be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications.
Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts.
Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for thesis report on fuzzy, Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. A Worn Path? Subscription is required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the descriptive my dream, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Path Essay? Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of pacthesis cheat, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and path essay health care organizations.
Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for schlorship, clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. A Worn Path Essay? When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for the special designation of chrono cheat codes, evidence-based CME. See the a worn essay, AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to find the essay, answer in an authoritative compendium of a worn path, evidence-based reviews, or at least try to find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to be available, try to cite an authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of statement paper, Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a worn, a major medical organization. If no strong evidence exists to support the conventional approach to managing a given clinical situation, point this out in the text, especially for key recommendations. Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and high-quality evidence may not exist to my dream school, support conventional knowledge or practice. Patient-Oriented vs. Path? Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the concept of statement paper, Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in distinction to path, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). POEM deals with outcomes of importance to statement paper, patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life.
DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory values or other measures of response. Although the a worn essay, results of DOE sometimes parallel the results of POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the report logic, only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence. Here is an example of how the latter situation might appear in the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at a worn path essay an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and essay schlorship improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on a worn path essay, ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is descriptive about school, associated with an increase in mortality. POEM results are contrary to a worn path essay, DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is report on fuzzy logic, associated with a decrease in a worn essay, mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer.
PSA screening detects prostate cancer at descriptive about my dream school an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of path, PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in report logic, mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications.
Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from path essay, Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Essay Introduction? Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the strength and validity of the essay, literature that supports the discussion (see the following section, Levels of Evidence). Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings.
In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the hearsay of conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to statement paper, the scrutiny of scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to essay, be seen in primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations. Thesis On Fuzzy Logic? Shaughnessy and Slawson's guide for writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the a worn path, evidence supporting the key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. Many different rating systems of varying complexity and thesis logic clinical relevance are described in a worn, the medical literature.
Recently, the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the report on fuzzy logic, study quality as measured by internal validity and the quality of the entire body of evidence on a topic.8. While it is important to appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is more useful in AFP . We have adopted the a worn path essay, following convention, using an ABC rating scale. Criteria for high-quality studies are discussed in essay, several sources.8 , 9 See the AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of evidence and path essay see the statement paper, accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the potential pitfalls and limitations of any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes.
High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial. A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and essay well-substantiated conclusions. Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of study participants and consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is pacthesis chrono days cheat, also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion. Each rating is a worn path, applied to schlorship, a single reference in the article, not to a worn, the entire body of descriptive essay school, evidence that exists on a topic. Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by the specific type of study for that reference.
For example, following a level B rating, include one of a worn path essay, these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and writing legal research papers mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for a worn path essay, chlamydial infection. [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for diabetes every three years in all patients at high risk of the disease, including all adults 45 years and older. [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for the treatment of report, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the a worn path, topic and purpose of the review and describe its relevance to family practice. The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at one point in time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is expected to develop it over a given period of time (incidence).
A more engaging way of doing this is to thesis logic, indicate how often a typical family physician is essay, likely to encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the statement paper, literature search was conducted and what major sources of evidence were used. Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by an established evaluation process, such as the Cochrane Collaboration). Be comprehensive in trying to path, identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the quality of research reviewed. Thesis? Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions.
If there is controversy on essay, a topic, address the pacthesis days cheat, full scope of the controversy. The discussion can then follow the typical format of a clinical review article. It should touch on one or more of the following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and future directions. The review will be comprehensive and balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and a worn any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Emphasize an descriptive about my dream evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the absence of a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for these recommendations is lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in deciding how to implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to help clarify the costs and health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. Path Essay? Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of the key take-home points.
These points are not necessarily the same as the key recommendations, whose level of evidence is report on fuzzy logic, rated, although some of them will be. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at most two to four key statements; some will have none. Path? Rate only those statements that have corresponding references and base the rating on the quality and level of evidence presented in the supporting citations. Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews) as the basis for determining the essay my dream school, level of essay, evidence. In other words, the pacthesis days cheat codes, supporting citation should be a primary research source of the information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for determining ratings of a worn path essay, evidence. The references should include the writing legal research, most current and important sources of path, support for writing, key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and information that would not usually be found in a worn, most general reference textbooks).
Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of reference citations, AFP prefers to introduction, include a succinct list of key references. (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to your personal reference list.) You may use the following checklist to ensure the completeness of your evidence-based review article; use the source list of reviews to identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is common in family practice, especially topics in a worn essay, which there is new, important information about diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the topic and adolescence essay introduction the purpose of the review, and describes its relevance to family practice.
A table of CME objectives for the review is included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to ensure a comprehensive assessment of a worn, relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, the Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is legal research, used to support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of path, patients likely to be representative of those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and low numbers needed to adolescence essay, treat. (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of evidence for key clinical recommendations is a worn, labeled using the following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and level C (consensus/expert opinion). Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of report, interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the a worn, evidence presented. Highlight key points about report logic diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of key take-home points. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of a worn essay, this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice.
Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for essay, the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done.
Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the a worn, level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the research, same as key recommendations that are rated). Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in.
Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to a worn path, the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to this issue CME credits in pacthesis, this issue. Access This Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., is professor and chair of the Department of a worn path, Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. Essay? He is also editor of American Family Physician.
A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. Essay? Siwek completed his family practice residency at Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. Statement Paper? . MARGARET L. A Worn Path Essay? GOURLAY, M.D., is currently the American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. A graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in report, family medicine at the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., is the B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. professor of family medicine at the University of Virginia Health System in Charlottesville, Va. He is director and founder of the Center for Information Mastery and serves as section editor for a worn path, The Journal of Family Practice POEMs.
Dr. Slawson is a graduate of the University of thesis report on fuzzy logic, Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in path essay, family medicine at the University of Virginia. ALLEN F. Writing? SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is director of research and associate director of the a worn essay, Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa. He completed his doctorate and fellowship training at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Address correspondence to chrono days codes, Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. Path? NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:email@example.com). Reprints are not available from the on fuzzy, authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for a helpful review and a worn essay conceptual contributions to the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of interest. Sources of funding: none reported . 1. Siwek J. Reading and evaluating clinical review articles. Am Fam Physician . Essay About My Dream? 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2155#x2013;60.
3. Path? Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. Introduction? The effect of spironolactone on a worn path essay, morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Statement Paper? N Engl J Med . 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. A Worn Essay? J Fam Pract . 1998;47:264#x2013;70. 5. Pacthesis Cheat? Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything.
J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Path? Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an information master: a guidebook to writing papers, the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF. Becoming an information master: using POEMs to change practice with confidence.
Patient-oriented evidence that matters. Path Essay? J Fam Pract . 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the statement paper, U.S.
Preventive Services Task Force. A review of the process. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. Essay? CATbank topics: levels of evidence and grades of statement paper, recommendations. A Worn? Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/. 10. Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for the Cost Work Group of the Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The art and science of incorporating cost effectiveness into evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services.
Am J Prev Med . Essay Schlorship? 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. A Worn? Evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by on fuzzy, the AAFP.
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10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. #8220;A resume should be treated as one of your major design jobs. The typeface you use, the layout, etc all show exactly what level of a worn path design you are at. Every detail counts, and the sum of these details gives an impression of you as a designer.#8221; Self-promotion is essential to statement paper, a graphic designer#8217;s success. As a creative, expertly branding and marketing yourself is the path to reaching career goals, whether that is to be an Art Director for a worn an in-house firm or establishing a lucrative freelance design business. Crafting an eye-catching and memorable resume is major component of your self-promotion strategy. As a designer, your resume design needs to showcase your talent and thesis, epitomize your personal brand. It is the perfect opportunity to define you as a designer and to create a unique personal brand. When constructing a resume, you#8217;ll need to establish a personal brand identity that highlights your strengths and emphasizes the a worn path breadth of your abilities. At the 2014 HOW Live Design Conference, brand expert Robin Landa discussed the importance of building a personal brand. Watch this clip from her presentation, #8220;How to Build Your Own Brand — A 10-Step Guide,#8221; for some professional insight on how to start thinking about the statement paper brand identity development process. To view the a worn essay rest of report on fuzzy Robin#8217;s presentation, download it here.
10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. Find resume design inspiration from the graphic designer resumes below. Path Essay. These designs showcase each designer#8217;s creativity and professional experience, leveraging unique presentation techniques for a memorable final product. Legal. Infographic Resume Design in a Tube. This top-of-the-pile resume package brought designer Kenny Barela#8216;s personality and work to life. A Worn Path Essay. This project was honored as the Best of Show winner in the 2010 HOW Promotion Design Awards.
Learn more about the project here, or enter your own work into this year#8217;s competition. Learn more about infographic design in How to legal, Make an Infographic , an online course with John T. Meyer of visual design firm Lemonly. About: #8220;Final project of the a worn path essay discipline #8216;Creativity and Innovation#8217; at Graduate Diploma in Design Management. The goal was to create an unconventional resume in an innovative platform. Essay About My Dream. All the informations about the student were placed in a cardboard package as if they were texts from a product (sic).#8221; See more. Best Practices for Graphic Designers, Packaging: An essential guide for implementing effective package design solutions by a worn, Grip guides you through the entire packaging process from days codes strategy and essay, concept development, through selecting suitable materials, naming systems, considering the competition, assessing the shelf landscape and more. Personal Graphic Designer Resume and schlorship, Self-Promotion. #8220;This is my resume I#8217;ve been using for the past year, showing my skills, work experience, education other information.#8221; See more. #8220;Top Secret#8221; Resume Job Application. Essay. #8220;A combined resume and open job application formed as a humorous #8216;Top Secret#8217; report, giving away information about a #8216;newly educated and creative designer, who have settled in essay the city.#8217; This is path essay a self promotion project that were made to display a variety of statement paper skills as a graphic designer and get attention from local design agencies after i finished my studies.#8221; Read more. A Worn Path. Self-Branding and Creative Resume Design. #8220;I took a fair amount of time to design something that will represent me while I#8217;m not there! I took a lot of care to make it respond to my style and personality.
It#8217;s all handmade and printed using a normal domestic printer.#8221; See more. Graphic Designer Resume Business Cards. Follow the Red Line: Brochure CV/Resume Design. To learn more about the writing aspect to crafting an statement paper eye-catching graphic designer resume, check out The Graphic Designer#8217;s Guide to Better Business Writing . This handy guide breaks the writing process down into simple, easy-to-understand stages and a worn path essay, offers practical writing and presentation models that designers can put to use immediately. Real-life examples cover an array of adolescence essential topics: writing winning resumes and a worn essay, cover letters, landing accounts, writing polished letters and reports, creating design briefs, and much more. Essay My Dream. Discover how to start a successful design business with this webcast, 5 Secrets to Launching a Creative Business . This hour-long webcast discusses how to take the first step in creating a business, how to avoid the barriers that block success and how to make your passion profitable.
Whether you#8217;re a Designer, Photographer, Writer or Video Producer, this session can help you move forward with confidence that you can have the success you#8217;ve been trying to create for yourself. 9 thoughts on “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great. I like the a worn path one that can be formed into a carton especially. I#8217;m always surprised at statement paper how clever people can be. One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for path essay a smaller firm.
However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of statement paper these crafty designs would get past an ATS (Applicant Tracking System. All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe. But for path the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative. Here are some great examples of thesis report CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the 7th on the list. A Worn. I would have to agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for chrono cheat most of us. A Worn Path Essay. With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to be boring. Have a look at these Fancy CV templates.
There are some brilliant ideas out there! We would like to share with our Free resume. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template. Check out this resume pack I found too! Its like a crossover between something really creative and something sort of traditional.. So easy to use also.. Adolescence Introduction. Have a look here: https://creativemarket.com/3Angle/605445-The-Complete-Resume-Collection. You would want to have a look at http://www.cvdesigner.in to get some awesome resumes made.
They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of a worn path essay things in statement paper the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Path. Todays designs should incorporate more and with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. Statement Paper. I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and path essay, professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at statement paper the level of personal information that is a worn path shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;. You NEVER NEVER put that on a resume. It#8217;s illegal for an employer to ask for a photo (and all the other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it? It might make the HR department very uncomfortable. You must be logged in to post a comment. Handlettering Experiments – Textures.
Want to get your hands dirty exploring some analogue letter-making techniques? This course is for you. 5 video presentations for adolescence one great price – a MyDesignShop exclusive! HOW Fall 2017 — The Promotion Marketing Design Issue is here! Copyright F+W All rights reserved | Privacy.
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Essay On Indian Cricket Team Essays and Research Papers. Mr. Consistent-Rahul Dravid, the man at the helm of Indian cricket is the cynosure of all eyes with the Indian . cricket team eyeing the 2007 World Cup title this March in the West Indies. Born on a worn path essay, 11 January 1973 in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, he grew up in Bangalore and hit the headlines when he scored a century on debut for his school team and a double century for the Karnataka under-15 cricket team against the Kerala under-15 cricket team . He made his Ranji debut in 1991 against Maharashtra. Chemistry , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1390 Words | 6 Pages. relationship between cricket and politics is clearly portrayed in South Asia from 1880 to essay schlorship 2005 through the easing of the tension between . different caste members, although the tension eased was not always from a religious aspect between the Pakistanis, Indians , and the British. The different problems that arose in South Asia was mostly class or caste systems (Docs 2, 3, 4), rivalry (Docs 1, 6, 10), and a worn essay, religious tensions (Docs 5, 7, 8, 9) against the different countries and cricket teams . Cricket in many ways. Caste , Cricket , Hinduism 1303 Words | 4 Pages. Cricket and the Indian Woman Women’s interest in cricket is a sudden development, propelled mostly by the . advertisements projecting cricketers as demigods. In the pacthesis days cheat year 2003, model and path essay, actress Mandira Bedi became popular for hosting a cricket -discussion program during the World Cup cricket matches. Her immense popularity had little to do with her knowledge about cricket and more with the plunging neckline of her saris and the unavoidable amount of cleavage on statement paper, exhibit.
Today, women are seen cheering. Bowling , Cricket , Cricket ball 1275 Words | 4 Pages. ? CRICKET - A RELIGION IN INDIA Cricket : It is the a worn essay word that gives my whole body an adrenaline rush. It is thesis on fuzzy, not just a game. It’s . a religion. A Worn Path! There’s only one religion that I follow, and that’s Cricket . I believe in essay about school only one god, that’s Sachin Tendulkar. This Indian is the best and most popular cricketer in the world. He’s my idol and it is fair to essay say that my ideals are shared by my countrymen. The country comes to a stop when a cricket match is being played.
The roads are deserted, parties and. Board of Control for papers, Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1797 Words | 5 Pages. Overview Twenty20 cricket , often referred to as the “short game” involves each team only playing a single innings, batting each . for a maximum of 20 overs. The timespan of a typical Twenty20 game is just under 3 hours, each innings therefore lasting 75 mins, and this brings the game more in line with other popular sports such as football or rugby. The game was conceived by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) with the aim of creating a faster and more exciting version of cricket . The board stressed. 2007 ICC World Twenty20 , Cricket , ICC World Twenty20 1273 Words | 4 Pages. article on Cricket Vs Other Games in India ” will boost your confidence to be successful in essay Essay Writting Test: It’s bitter . but very true that one single game blotting many others games in India. Cricket fever overshadowed our national sport Hockey. Thesis On Fuzzy Logic! There is no question of any debate that cricket is killing other sports in a worn path our country. Indians eat, live, sleep, talk and walk cricket . Theoretically we all know that hockey is our national game but in practical vision its cricket maniac all over. Arjuna Award , Bronze medal , Gold medal 770 Words | 3 Pages.
IPL Super Patch For Cricket 07. Before Continuing, Please Make Sure You Have Gaurav's Asian Windies Face Pack Installed. When You Install . It, only install the faces, and not the roster from the pack. You May Continue If You Have The Face Pack Installed. YOU NEED TO READ THIS READ ME AFTER INSTALLING, TO FIND OUT HOW THE TOURNAMENTS WORK, YOU HAVE TO LOAD TOURNAMENTS INSTEAD OF CREATE THEM. THERE ARE SPECIAL PROGRAMS THAT COME WITH THIS PATCH, YOU NEED TO READ TO KNOW HOW TO WORK THEM . Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 646 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on adolescence essay, the Craze of Cricket in a worn path essay India by Subha Sarkar Craze, courage, fear, fantasy, win… and the list goes on and on, of . Report! words that have found entry in the cricket lexicon. What do these words signify in their association with the path essay world of cricket ? Craze to thesis report on fuzzy grab the accessories of the favorite cricketers, courage to postpone the path essay important activities when one knows the load of work pending can prove fatal if not done in time, fear of losing the match when six runs are required on the last ball. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , Dismissal 1901 Words | 5 Pages. between cricket and West Indian Social and Political life” Cricket has been intertwined in statement paper the life of West . Indians since it arrived in the islands. It has been a representation of injustice and essay, prejudice as well as a conduit for social and political triumph in the West Indies.
The development of cricket , as not just another game, mirrors the question for decolonization from Britain and also the struggles of nationalist and independence endeavors. Throughout its lifespan, the statement paper West Indies cricket team. British West Indies , Caribbean , Cricket 983 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket (game), a high-scoring outdoor bat-and-ball game played between teams of 11 players that originated in England over 500 . years ago. A team sport exceeded in popularity worldwide only by soccer and essay, basketball, cricket can be found in over 120 countries. The game has been played in the United States since the early 18th century.
II. EQUIPMENT AND PLAYING AREA Cricket Basics Cricket Bowler Bob Willis Cricket Pitch Cricket Bowler Bob Willis. Cricket , Cricket pitch , Cricket World Cup 1205 Words | 4 Pages. Hockey the National Sport of India not Cricket Well, if asked some Indians about what they thought was the adolescence essay introduction National Sport . of India his answer would most probably be Cricket . Even though most people will agree but, the truth is the National Sport of India actually is a worn path, Field Hockey. The thing is actually the hockey team deserves little better treatment and higher praise than cricket . But, do we treat both games equally in writing India and do we have any special attachment for our national game. Board of Control for Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1358 Words | 4 Pages. Cricket DBQ In South Asia during 1880-2005 politics gained an unusual bedfellow. Cricket was introduced to India by Great . Britain for a worn path, a purpose that was widely discussed. Some believed cricket brought their people together and statement paper, unified different castes and essay, cultures within India and legal, Britain, some believed the sport was just another way for the British to rule over India and appear superior, and others criticized the religious nature present in many of the tournaments. This issue could be better. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , England cricket team 1296 Words | 4 Pages.
Cricket , also called the Gentleman's game, is a bat-and-ball team sport that is first documented as being played in southern . Path Essay! England in chrono days cheat the 16th century. The sport's earliest definite mention was in a 1598 court case which referred to a sport called cricket being played by boys at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. It is believed that it was originally a children's game but references around 1610, indicate that adults had started playing it and the earliest reference to a worn path inter-parish. Batting , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1372 Words | 4 Pages. of this version of cricket shows, in the country which is now called to be the chrono days Mecca of cricket , IPL with its star lit, glamour . rapped extravaganza is likely to become the talk of the time. This year after the heavy crash of Indian squad's fighter jet in Australia, there had been a sudden drop of public interest in cricket but once the news of the a worn essay auction of the players reached the media, the cricket fever started to report on fuzzy logic spread. This mega tournament made the T20 version of cricket hugely popular across. Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 882 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket : Cricket was first played in southern England in a worn path essay the 16th century.
By the end of the essay 18th century, it had developed . into the national sport of England. The expansion of the British Empire led to cricket being played overseas and by the mid-19th century the first international matches were being held. The ICC, the game's governing body, has 10 full members. The game is most popular in Australasia, England, the Indian subcontinent, the West Indies and Southern Africa. A Worn Essay! Yes, cricket is the. Board of Control for chrono, Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1414 Words | 4 Pages. “The Cricket Match” Samuel Selvon’s short story, “The Cricket Match” explores the subtle racial tensions amongst West . Indian immigrants living in path essay England whilst working with English counterparts.
Selvon sets his narrative in a tyre factory in Chiswick, England. Most likely, the essay timeline in a worn path essay which this story occurs is somewhere in the mid 1950’s when England were still colonists of most of the English speaking Caribbean islands. The main idea behind Selvon’s tale lies with Algernon the protagonist. Caribbean , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Crickets by Robert Olen Butler – an essay Coming to America can be difficult in itself. Adjusting to the cultural and social . part of a new country is writing papers, a big task when you’re a Vietnamese soldier who doesn’t speak a word of English. But when your only child is letting go of the central values that are a big part of your own world – you can’t stop to wonder what you can do to change this situation. This is the a worn condition that Thieu, the adolescence main character of a worn essay, “ Crickets ”, finds himself in. “ Crickets ”. American English , English language , English-language films 997 Words | 3 Pages. in Sri Lanka, they may meet each other's gaze, and writing legal research papers, know they are a lot alike.
The last time the two met in Tests, they could not have had more disparate . days. Defending a 1-0 series lead, Mathews embraced an extreme form of a worn, conservatism and his team drowned in it on my dream, the final day in a worn Sharjah. With no choice but to launch an unrelenting attack, Misbah kept his side in the match long enough, until after a whirl of bludgeoned drives and reverse-sweeps from way outside leg stump, he hit the winning. Batting , Batting average , Crease 845 Words | 3 Pages. Although cricket is not the official national sport in India, it begets much more excitement and chrono cheat codes, a greater fan following than the official . national sport Hockey. Why only hockey?
In fact no other sport in India can claim the position of cricket in respect to a worn path essay its popularity and revenue generation. The cricket mania in India would leave an onlooker amazed and wonderstruck. Go to any part in Indian from Jammu and Kashmirin the north to adolescence Kerala and Tamilnadu in essay the south or fromMaharashtra in the. 1996 Cricket World Cup , 2011 Cricket World Cup , Board of thesis report on fuzzy logic, Control for essay, Cricket in India 715 Words | 3 Pages. other sports? ‘ Cricket is a religion in essay schlorship India’- a powerful statement that would bring a smile on all cricket lovers in essay India. . However, rarely expressed is the other side of the coin – an statement paper issue of one man’s extreme popularity killing the very identity and a worn path essay, existence of all other players in the mix.
No Doubt that the game’s popularity has brought glory to millions of fans residing in India and pacthesis cheat codes, worldwide, has instilled a sense of pride even in non- cricket -following Indian audiences…whenever. Cricket World Cup , Game , Games 927 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of a worn essay, 11 players on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard . long pitch. Each team takes it in pacthesis turn to bat, attempting to score runs, while the other team fields. A Worn! Each turn is legal research, known as an innings.The bowler delivers the ball to the batsman who attempts to hit the ball with his bat far enough for him to run to the other end of the pitch and score a run. Path Essay! Each batsman continues batting until he is out. The batting team continues batting. 2nd millennium , Batting , Cricket 1437 Words | 4 Pages. Pocahontas Essay Throughout American culture, racism and stereotypes have been prevalent, yet the Disney movie Pocahontas is an statement paper attempt to . better understand racial intolerance towards Native Americans. Though the movie is not completely historically accurate, the context of it portrays a more truthful story of the first European and Native American encounters which were mostly hostile ones, contrary to the modern American belief of path, “Thanksgiving” like events. However, there were attempts of on fuzzy logic, understanding.
Americas , European colonization of the Americas , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 854 Words | 3 Pages. Present Situation of Bangladesh in Cricket. supposed that cricket will be only game for a worn, rich, sluggish and lazy people. Pacthesis Days Cheat! But now-a-days it becomes very popular and interesting game for us. . Over 120 countries playing cricket and a worn path, many people want to be cricket player. In this day and age women are also playing cricket with similar to men. There are many tournaments organize for women.
In my term paper I will mention about the starting time of essay my dream, cricket , how it gotten popularity in Bangladesh and present situation of Bangladesh in cricket . Establishing. Bangladesh national cricket team , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1775 Words | 7 Pages. Cricket , not snake charmers and elephants, is the most common sight in India. Go where you will or want, there will always be a narrow street . Path Essay! nearby, chock full of a group of enthusiastic boys, of chrono days cheat codes, all ages and descriptions, playing cricket with remarkable energy and passion. Little boys who are only just bigger than the bats they bravely hold, teenagers attempting to play in the manner of the national cricketers they watch and admire, grown men whose love for the game has never waned ? such are.
Batting , Cricket , Cricket ball 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Early cricket Origin No one knows when or where cricket began but there is a body of essay, evidence, much of it circumstantial, . Pacthesis Chrono Codes! that strongly suggests the essay game was devised during Saxon or Norman times by children living in writing legal the Weald. It is generally believed that cricket survived as a children's game. Adult participation is a worn path essay, unknown before the essay early 17th century. Possibly cricket was derived from bowls Derivation of the name of cricket A number of words are thought to path essay be possible sources for.
Cricket , Cricket terminology , Cricket World Cup 2467 Words | 7 Pages. Technology in Cricket Introduction: For a game as steeped in tradition as cricket is, the statement paper question of how much to rely on . A Worn Path Essay! technology is introduction, a perennial and is now becoming increasingly complex. The Decision Review System has been controversial since it was first put in place. If anyone needed proof that cricket's new video-replay scheme, the Umpire Decision Review System (DRS), has completely changed the sport, the Test series in which England have just slumped to defeat against a worn essay Pakistan in. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Dismissal 1275 Words | 4 Pages. chairman of the introduction marketing sub-committee of the a worn essay BCCI, the Indian Premier League was launched on 14th September 2007 on the lines of English . Logic! Premier League (Football) and National Basketball Association. Studded with the path starry glitz of Bollywood and backed by the money-power of Indian business tycoons, the IPL has changed the face of international Cricket in 21st century. Statement Paper! Bidding of a worn path, Team Franchise Redefining the essay schlorship current face of Indian cricket on Wednesday, 20th February 2008, it rained millions of.
Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 1634 Words | 5 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. ?Top of Form Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form My . India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is my dream and a worn path, my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. India Winning the 2012 Cricket World Cup.
West Indies and research, unknown in most parts of the world. But in India, cricket is religion. here may be many religions in this secular . country called India, but it is said that cricket unites Indians better than any religion can ever do.it is cricket that enjoys supremacy in essay terms of fan following. With millions of ardent followers, cricket is the ‘religion’ of India. ‘Men in Blue’ are absolutely adored by the crazy cricket fans and their fame outshines the popularity of any other celebrity. From. 2007 Cricket World Cup , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1145 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket Between British and Indians. think that a game like cricket would play into thesis report logic the politically life? Well in South Asia it played a major role. A Worn Essay! Cricket gave the . Writing Research Papers! people a way out to path essay stop thinking of the hard ships but rise up and play against the upper classes and play them as equals and many cases beat them which bought pride to the people.
By them having cricket it was a bit of writing, a stress reliever and a barrier to hold off fighting. Path! This game gave people something to look up to and be happy about. From cricket players and pacthesis chrono days cheat codes, experts. Cricket , Game , Government 663 Words | 2 Pages. Olympics and world meets. Even the hockey crown has slipped out of India’s hands in a worn essay recent years. Pacthesis Cheat! India cast its spell of hockey supremacy over a period . beyond three decades.
The sports-minded European and other nations subsequently caught up with the Indian techniques. Path! With partition Pakistan emerged as a formidable rival in the sub-continent itself. Earlier, between the Amsterdam Olympiad in 1928 and the Rome Games in 1960 India had a monopolistic hold on the World’s hockey crown. Hockey The name. Caribbean , Cricket , India national cricket team 1365 Words | 5 Pages. Is This Cricket World Cup a Balance of Power?? The game of cricket , played at a leisurely pace then at the Test and county level, was on verge of going through a transition with the . introduction of limited-over’s games at thesis report logic the county level. Just about then, the first ever One-day International was played between England and Australia at the MCG in essay 1971. The popularity of essay, this shorter format of cricket was catching at such a brisk pace that the a worn path authorities controlling the game had to statement paper bring in something different to make the a worn path essay game a lot more entertaining.
Cricket , Cricket World Cup , FIFA World Cup 1452 Words | 4 Pages. Bend It Like Beckham Essay KaTsun Tsang Gurinder Chadha has used dialogue to show the thesis on fuzzy difference posed by a worn path opposing cultures. And most . particular, Jesminder Bhamra (or ‘Jess’ as she is commonly known), is made to overcome the complications of chrono cheat codes, wanting to both appease her traditional Sikh family, and her constant internal struggle as she tries to a worn path achieve her goal of becoming a football player, like her idol David Beckham. Essay! Gurinder Chadha’s dialogue is used to path essay show the resistance Jess has to face. Bend It Like Beckham , Gurinder Chadha 765 Words | 3 Pages. Indies during the first half of the 20th century. Cricket today, as it has been said many times, is legal research papers, not what it used to a worn essay be. Legal Research Papers! Unfortunately . many young West Indians know very little of what is once was and what it stood for, they take for granted the essay techniques and its origins.
The level of West Indies cricket has been diluted due to the increase of tourism and fast paced games. However there are many West Indians who hold strong to the fact that cricket is part of schlorship, our culture and a worn path, heritage. This archipelago. Barbados , British West Indies , Caribbean 2485 Words | 7 Pages. IPL Team Owners, Sponsors and essay schlorship, Brand Ambassadors Ads by a worn path essay Google Franchising Opportunity www.TheScholarsHub.com Get Our Tuition Center . Franchisee.
An Investment Of Only 5-10 Lakhs! Following are the schlorship team owners of a worn essay, IPL T20 Cricket Teams . Bangalore Royal Challengers • Owner - Liquor Baron Vijay Mallya (UB Group) • Captain – Kevin Pietersen. • Coach – Ray Jennings (South Africa) • Sponsors – Royal Challenge and other UB brands like McDowells and Bagpiper. • Brand Ambassadors – Katrina Kaif, Deepika. Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 686 Words | 3 Pages. ketCricket Top Indian Game The most loved sport in India, needs no introduction. Every person, despite of his or her age, has an opinion on . this game. Really, the statement paper craze of cricket in India is a worn path, dramatic. Everytime India plays a match, people in India find some or the other way out of their busy routines to view the live action. In India, cricket is followed much like a religion and the cricketers cannot be rated less than God himself.India-Pakistan cricket matches are played with most aggression by.
Board of Control for Cricket in India , Cricket , India 503 Words | 2 Pages. Industry Analysis: The Cricket Market. Puma, and more recently, adidas and Nike, have been moving into adolescence introduction the cricket market. Reebok was the official technical sponsor of the 2011 ICC . A Worn Path Essay! World Cup and adidas clothes the Proteas, English and adolescence essay introduction, Australian teams . Nike featured prominently on the sleeves of the Indian team shirts. Some of the top players who had been in action at a worn the World Cup use bats from brands more associated with athletic tracks or soccer fields than cricket pitches. These include the likes of Sachin Tendulkar using an adidas.
2003 Cricket World Cup , Batting , Cricket 1930 Words | 6 Pages. English Essay – Indian Camp The transition from child to adult can be a rough process. Statement Paper! At times a radical experience has to . occur for essay, the change to happen. A meeting with the basic conditions of essay schlorship, life, and with that the circle of path, life, can in many cases be a trigger for the transition from boy to man. In this short story the transition is linked to the dichotomy between civilisation and nature, civilisation dominating nature. In the short story “ Indian Camp” by Ernest Hemingway, there is descriptive my dream, a case. Biodiversity , Civilization , Environment 958 Words | 3 Pages. Association 5. Path Essay! Name the statement paper IPL Team which Defeated Chennai Super Kings in Final to Lift its First IPL Trophy by winning the essay IPL Season 6 A: . Legal Papers! Mumbai Indians 6. Muhammad Ali retired from boxing in 1981, what was his career record? A: 55 WINS,5 DEFEATS 7. The Olympic Games were not held during which three years, for what reason?
A: 1916,1940,14944 … world war I and II 8. What three nations were the original members of the Imperial Cricket Council, now known as the International Cricket Council? A: England. 2008 Summer Olympics , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 770 Words | 3 Pages. 2011 cricket cup. The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup. It was played in India, Sri . Lanka, and a worn path essay, (for the first time) Bangladesh. Pakistan was also scheduled to be a co-host, but after the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in statement paper Lahore, the International Cricket Council (ICC) cancelled that, and a worn, the headquarters of the organising committee, originally in Lahore, was transferred to statement paper Mumbai. Pakistan was to have held 14 matches, including one semi-final. 2007 Cricket World Cup , 2011 Cricket World Cup , Cricket 1181 Words | 5 Pages. French and Indian War Essay The French and Indian War (or the Seven Years War), one of the bloodiest wars in the . 18th century, took place from 1756 to 1763.
This war was the product of an imperial struggle between France and England over colonial land, wealth, and some say to even prove dominance within their rivalry. France and England were the “world leaders” at this time and with the start of the 13 colonies in North America, they both saw a great opportunity to expand land holdings and to spread. Canada , Europe , French and Indian War 731 Words | 2 Pages. | |Nationality: | Indian . | |Language Known: |English, Hindi, Gujarati | |Hobbies: |Reading books,playing Cricket ,Photography, Listening Music. | |Strengths: . Microsoft , Microsoft Windows , Operating system 269 Words | 3 Pages. 20-20 Will Eclipse Traditional Cricket. 20 -20 will eclipse traditional cricket With a cocktail of energy, adrenalin and high TRPs, the World Twenty20 is already a success. . Path! Commentators and logic, cricket buffs are labelling it the future. There is a certitude here that was absent, for a worn path essay, instance, when predictions for papers, the one-day format were made at the 1975 Prudential Cup.
Despite the a worn success of the World Twenty20, the ICC has insisted that it will not replace the 50-over format and that the writing papers limit of seven Twenty20 matches per Test-playing. Batting , Cricket , International Cricket Council 1100 Words | 4 Pages. ? 21ST-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS The advent of Twenty20 cricket (T20) and the wild success of the IPL in the first decade of the 21st century . led to a period of path, great innovation in the game. Thesis Report On Fuzzy Logic! The new, truncated form of the game privileged batting, partly by restricting the placement of fielders and a worn essay, shortening the boundaries. To counter free-scoring batsmen with heavy bats, bowlers began to perfect a great variety of different balls (deliveries). Disguise became an essential part of the bowler’s armoury.
Batting , Cricket , Cricket pitch 1292 Words | 4 Pages. Promoting Indian Hockey to Previous Glories. Promoting Indian Hockey to Previous Glories The Golden Old Days: — Between 1924 and thesis report, 1956 India won six successive Olympic hockey golds. . India has achieved huge successes in path hockey during its early years but later on it has only pacthesis codes, been a continuous downfall. With 8 Gold medals it has been the most successful hockey team in the world. So how come it came to a point that this hockey giant failed to even qualify for the 2008 Beijing Olympics? Today, again the Indian hockey team is a worn path, staring down the. 2008 Summer Olympics , Better , Cricket 1256 Words | 4 Pages. How Race effects participation in cricket. ? Research Project How Race effects participation In Cricket This . project will explore the impact race has on competitive male club cricket . Introduction! Race is path essay, defined as: “A concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of essay schlorship, human bodies”. Racial groups in society are based on certain biological or cultural characteristics, which are labelled as inferior by dominant groups in essay society.
Anthropology , Bangladesh national cricket team , Cricket 2315 Words | 9 Pages. BEYOND the BASICS: CRICKET STRATEGIES The Art and Strategy of report, Batting Just as Pitching controls the a worn path essay game of baseball, BATTING controls . the adolescence game in cricket . So, you must start with batting to essay understand cricket strategy. Recall that, in cricket , the batter (or BATSMAN) can hit in every direction, all around him. He uses many different kinds of schlorship, strokes to do this. driving with a full golf-like swing to hit straight ahead or slightly to left or right, pulling or hooking to hit the. Baseball , Baseball positions , Batting 2621 Words | 7 Pages. HST 219 Bend it like Beckham Term Essay HST 219 Bend it like Beckham Essay What a blonde! Such a paki! What do women . know anyway? It’s horrible that even in the twenty first century with human right laws and the idea of a ‘free’ country, there are still people saying these comments. A Worn Path Essay! What ever happened to everyone being created equally by God?
Although this is introduction, a nice dream or thought, in reality this may only be words preached to a worn young children. In the last few decades the world quickly. American football , Bend It Like Beckham , British Asian 2648 Words | 7 Pages. Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-7891989, 0333-5319544 e-mail: email@example.com website: www.onlineislamabad.com ENGLISH FOR CLASS 6TH . TO 8TH CLASS ( ESSAYS ) ============================================================ QUAID-E-AZAM Date of Birth: Quaid-e-Azam was born on 25th December 1876 at Karachi Fathers Name: His father name was Jinnah Poonja. He was a rich merchant of Karachi. Early Education: He received his early education from Karachi. Schlorship! He passed his Matriculation.
Islam , Karachi , Lahore 1068 Words | 3 Pages. ?PE ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: CRICKET DONE BY: NEETHI T. 9B INTRODUCTION Cricket is path, a bat-and-ball game played between two . Essay Schlorship! teams of path, 11 players each on a field at the centre of essay school, which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. Each team takes its turn to bat, attempting to score runs, while the a worn essay other team fields. Each turn is known as an innings. Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century.
By the thesis logic end of the 18th century, it had developed to be the national sport of England. Baseball , Batting , Cricket 2574 Words | 8 Pages. ? Team Work Team work is a worn path, defined as the process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to statement paper achieve a goal. A . successful team involves individuals who can work well together, trying their best in a worn path essay any circumstance to achieve that one main goal that they have set out to achieve. Teamwork means that people will try to cooperate, using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between among themselves. In every team , all members should. 1035 Words | 4 Pages.
? Team Building Team building is very important for descriptive essay school, many reasons and there are certain things that a team must . A Worn Essay! have to adolescence work efficiently. A team is a group of people that have common goals and work together effectively to a worn path achieve them. There is a difference between a team and a group. A group is a number of people or things that are located close together or are considered to be together, and may also share certain beliefs. Days Cheat! Workplaces, schools and hospitals are some of the places where teams are. Leadership , Member of Parliament 1130 Words | 2 Pages. What happened and why : Seagate is one of the largest digital content storage companies in path essay the world and has business in about 15 countries around the world . in Europe, Asia and the US (©2011 Seagate Technology LLC).
To create the ultimate team -building experience, every year Seagate brings 250 high-performing employees to Queenstown, near Lake Wakatipu in New Zealand. Days Codes! This event tests all their physical and emotional boundaries of endurance (Max, 2006). Path! This is a very popular program among Seagate. Queenstown, New Zealand , Seagate Technology , Team 1449 Words | 4 Pages. East Indian Culture Course Number: 1409 Instructor: Melanie K. Hail February 12, 2013 The term culture has many definitions depending . upon chrono the type of culture that you are referring to. In this situation; culture, is defined as the a worn path essay integrated pattern of papers, human knowledge, belief and behavior that depends upon path essay the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to essay introduction future generations. I believe that culture of an ethnic group starts at the beginning of a worn, time before people understood that their. Extended family , Family , Health care 861 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Downfall of Pakistan Cricket- by schlorship Adnan Khalid Chemical Engr- Mba( Operations Management), Ibm-Uet, Lahore.
of Pakistan cricket Submitted By ; Chemical Engr Adnan Khalid Submitted to a worn : Prof Suhail Rizvi . Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) : is the publicaly owned, governing authority for writing legal research, the regulation of Cricket in pakistan. A Brief History of Pakistan Cricket and Pakistan. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , ICC World Twenty20 2525 Words | 7 Pages. to work together as a team . This could be an a worn path informal event, like a social or a group, or at descriptive essay my dream school formal work. The formal work environments often . Path! need to descriptive about school co-operate with each other, linking individuals who have some different techniques or similar skills in order to path essay achieve a common goal. In the essay schlorship team , the essay members need communicate with other team member frequently. Communication is an essential activity that can exchange of thoughts, messages or information through the whole team . Sometimes, if the adolescence essay introduction member. Human resource management , Leadership , Management 1867 Words | 6 Pages. Erik Wilson Indian Culture Paper History Ms. Saliche 2/11/12 The Art of Indian Dance: Bharatanatyam “Dance is . the hidden language of the soul.” Dance is something way more than just fist-pumping at path some party.
Dance has deep meaning; it is an adolescence art form that can range from the simplest of steps to the most intricate set of moves. In Indian culture, like in any other culture, dance is a cultural tradition that has been around for centuries. In this paper, I will discuss the several. Bharatanatyam , Chennai , Dance 797 Words | 3 Pages. My favourite sport:Cricket My favourite sport is a worn path essay, Cricket . Cricket is a wonderful game between the two teams . Each . team will have eleven players and two to three substitutes. Out eleven players five to six players will be bats men, and writing legal papers, the rest will be a bowlers and fielders and one wicket keeper. Skipper will be appointed to lead the team . It is a team game. Cricket is an one day match and now it is played for threes hours too. Cricket field will have pitch with stamps and bales and two ends. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Fielding 741 Words | 2 Pages.
The Use of American Indians as Mascots (Persuassive Essay) people think that using American Indians as mascots honors the a worn Indian people, but the truth is they feel insulted and segregated. . There have been many requests to change this, not only by essay introduction Indian people but by essay regular people from other cultures too, and still these sports teams used them as mascots. High schools and colleges shouldn't keep their American Indian name or their symbols. Stereotyping is the main reason why many people don't agree with American Indians being used as mascots. About My Dream School! Racism and. Education , High school , Indigenous peoples of the path essay Americas 998 Words | 3 Pages.
?The Indian constitution:- The Indian Constitution, which stands for national goals like Democracy, Socialism, Secularism and . National Integration, was framed by the representatives of Indian people after a long period of debates and discussions. It is the most detailed constitution in the world. Schlorship! No other constitution has gone into such minute details as the Indian Constitution. The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was.
Constitution , Constitution of India , Government of India 1152 Words | 4 Pages.
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. Path? ] A literature review is not an statement paper annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed.
While a summary of the a worn path what you have read is contained within the essay schlorship literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of path essay interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and adolescence essay, relating this research to path, your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and essay my dream school, rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in a worn path helping you organize your review. In the statement paper sections from essay Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and descriptive my dream school, as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and essay, skim over these to my dream, get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are:
Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to a worn path, write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of statement paper study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the a worn path essay Furl accounts of other Furl members).
Some tips for my dream, identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an a worn introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of thesis your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of a worn your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and essay my dream, theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on path, how to do this from statement paper different databases). You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of a worn path each article. Tip: as you skim the thesis report articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for essay, User 1. You can take notes onto legal research, note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later.
Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the path essay topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of cheat codes using note cards.
Be consistent in essay how you record notes. Define key terms: look for schlorship, differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to a worn, include in descriptive essay about your review. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the a worn path page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references).
To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to thesis, save time in a worn path essay note taking), if you are accessing the article in essay a format that allows this, you can copy and a worn, paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in pacthesis chrono cheat codes translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the a worn path essay original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the descriptive essay about research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence).
Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the a worn path big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Statement Paper? Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on essay, why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in statement paper this field of study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature).
When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. A Worn? As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an about electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in path essay a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for schlorship, key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. A Worn Essay? However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to statement paper, date and essay, has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the statement paper last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the a worn essay direction of the field.
If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the writing legal research papers literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to a worn essay, help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of schlorship your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into a worn path essay Word once you have completed the table in descriptive essay about my dream school Excel. The advantage of using Excel is a worn path essay, that it enables you to sort your findings according to report on fuzzy logic, a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of a worn path essay tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and pacthesis chrono days cheat, concepts. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of a worn essay your final review.
The following are the essay schlorship key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the path case of descriptive essay school this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to essay, provide an thesis report on fuzzy overview of the a worn path topic that is of interest to writing research papers, you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in a worn essay subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in legal papers your final project. Essay? In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in your notes.
Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Thesis? Galvan (2006:72) captures the essay difference between an pacthesis chrono cheat annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by essay, using the trees you found in the literature you read. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to statement paper, the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of path argument. You may find the thesis on fuzzy program Inspiration useful in path essay mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to writing legal papers, convert this to a worn path essay, a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies.
Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Statement Paper? Plan to describe relevant theories. A Worn Path Essay? Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the essay about my dream school review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in path the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found.
Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of cheat previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an a worn overview near the beginning of the review Near the legal papers beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the a worn path key details of the literature and introduction, communicates your point of view (a literature is path, not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to writing research papers, help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path essay path of the statement paper argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it.
If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the a worn assertion or proposition presented in essay introduction the introduction. On the a worn path essay other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to on fuzzy, the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.).
Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.