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En bref, histoire de l’apartheid en Afrique du Sud. Of Tables Paper. Donner une determination a l’apartheid n’est pas chose si aisee : si les definitions communes s’accordent pour parler d’un regime de discrimination et d’exclusion d’une partie de la population fonde sur son origine religieuse ou ethnique , la realite qui s’applique est bien plus obscure, et bien plus dramatique, que ces seuls mots ne le laissent supposer. Anthropology Essay. Dans un regime d’apartheid, les populations n’ont pas les memes droits, et peuvent etre separees les unes des autres. List In Research. Certains lieux ou emplois peuvent etre reserves a une partie seulement de la population ; et tout est ainsi, dans la vie economique et sociale quotidienne, regi et reglemente par des textes. Dbq Essay Rubric. En Afrique du Sud, l’apartheid a proprement parle s’est exerce jusqu’en 1991, et fut mis en place legislativement par le Parti National en 1948. A partir de cette date, la pratique empirique de segregation raciale, ayant cours dans tout le pays depuis les premieres annees de colonisation, devint une politique institutionnelle : la division politique, economique et geographique du territoire sud-africain ; la division de la population sud-africaine en quatre groupes distincts (Blancs, Metis, Bantous, Indiens), la primaute etant accordee a la communaute blanche. Of Tables. I. Dictator Nightmare Essay. L’apartheid sud-africain : fruit d’une incroyable diversite ethnique et culturelle. In Research Paper. L’apartheid en Afrique du Sud est le fait d’un tres long processus de construction du nationalisme specifique afrikaner . Ap Euro Rubric. Les afrikaners, ou boers , sont les descendants des premiers colons installes dans le pays, au 17eme siecle.
Profondement calviniste, cette communaute fut fortement marquee par la doctrine de la predestination , croyant en sa propre destinee de peuple elu pour diriger les terres sur lesquelles ses ancetres s’etaient installes. List Of Tables In Research Paper. Elle developpa egalement sa propre langue, l’afrikaans. A Brilliant Essay. Par un passe complexe, l’Afrique australe fut de tout temps une plate-forme pluri-ethnique et multi-culturelle : La colonisation neerlandaise du 17eme siecle fut a l’origine d’un peuplement blanc vivant sur la cote, issu des Pays-Bas, mais venu aussi de France, d’Allemagne et de Scandinavie. Of Tables In Research. L’importation d’esclaves de Madagascar et d’Indonesie donna lieu a un metissage de toutes ces populations, dont on anthropology essay, qualifia les descendants de Coloured , en oppositions aux Blancs. List In Research Paper. Une seconde colonisation au 18eme siecle, britannique cette-fois, entraina un revirement net des rapports de forces en cours, a l’avantage des anglais sur les afrikaners. Le Cap passa sous le controle britannique et l’anglais devint la langue officielle en 1822, au grand dam des afrikaners. Ap Euro Dbq Essay Rubric. L’abolition de l’esclavage (1833) entraina bientot le debut du Grand Trek , a savoir l’emigration de milliers d’afrikaners des cotes vers l’interieur des terres. In Research. La seconde moitie du 19eme siecle fut le temps de la decouverte de l’or et des diamants sud-africains. Paper Proposal. Ce phenomene engendra une hausse importante de l’immigration europeenne et africaine en direction d’Afrique du Sud, et l’arrivee massive d’ouvriers indiens et chinois, incites a venir travailler dans les mines et pour l’agriculture. Paper. Nouveau metissage culturel : les deux-tiers de ces indiens ne repartirent jamais a la fin de leur contrat de travail. Dictator Nightmare Essay. Ce qu’il faut donc comprendre, dans un premier temps, pour saisir les fondements de l’apartheid en Afrique du Sud, c’est cette incroyable diversite culturelle issue de l’histoire que connait le pays.
Melee a la construction historique d’un nationalisme afrikaner sans concession, elle sera la source des evolutions politiques a venir. Of Tables In Research. II. L’apartheid sud-africain : fruit d’un incontrolable nationalisme afrikaner. How To A Brilliant. Les afrikaners, nous l’avons dit, sont les descendants des premiers colons arrives en Afrique du Sud. In Research Paper. A ce titre, et du fait de leur croyance dans la doctrine calviniste, ils considerent etre le seul peuple destine a exercer le controle sur les terres sud-africaines. Research Paper. Malgre cela, les colons britanniques les chasserent du pouvoir des leur venue au 18eme siecle, et leur imposerent l’anglais comme langue officielle au detriment de leur propre langue, l’Afrikaans. Of Tables. Certains historiens font appel, pour expliquer la montee nationaliste afrikaner, a une explication theologique. Every Dictator Nightmare. Il semblerait que les afrikaners se soient assimiles aux Juifs oppresses de l’Ancien Testament depuis le Grand Trek. List In Research Paper. Ce deplacement de population les aurait davantage encore federes dans l’idee de former un peuple elu, pret a exercer le controle sur leurs terres.
Cette idee de Nation fut confortee des le 19eme siecle par l’historien George McCall Theal, et le nationalisme afrikaner fut alors assimile a la resistance du peuple face a l’oppression et a la domination britannique. Nightmare Essay. Les annees 1840-50 marquent d’ailleurs la fondation de petites republiques boers, dont certaines se sont unifiees (republique sud-africaine du Transvaal et Etat Libre d’Orange). List. Par la suite, un eveil national afrikaner fut entrepris par la communaute elle-meme, par le biais de la langue et de l’apprentissage de l’histoire nationale dans les livres. Download. Mais c’est a la fin du 19eme siecle qu’eut lieu l’evenement qui marqua definitivement l’entree en guerre des boers contre les britanniques. Of Tables Paper. Entre 1899 et 1902 eut lieu en effet la Guerre des boers , qui, apres le Grand Trek, acheva de cristalliser le sentiment national afrikaner (guerre terrible, marquee par l’existence de camps de concentration ; plus de 26 000 boers civils perirent, laissant une grande ranc?ur du peuple afrikaner contre les britanniques). La ponction demographique due a la guerre, l’afflux d’africains et d’asiatiques, l’imposition de l’anglais, puis l’interdiction de l’apprentissage de l’afrikaans ; tous ces elements conduisirent les afrikaners a reagir pour preserver leur destinee . Essay. Cette reaction prit la forme d’une creation d’ecoles boers privees, dans lesquelles etait assurer la transmission des bases nationales, a savoir la langue, le calvinisme et la vision de la predestination. List Of Tables In Research. Suite a la Premiere Guerre mondiale, les afrikaners entrerent clairement en concurrence avec les ouvriers noirs sur le marche du travail. Anthropology Essay. Pour defendre encore et toujours les interets de leur communaute, leurs leaders se lancerent le defi de donner aux afrikaners le meme niveau de vie et de statut social que la petite bourgeoisie anglophone. Of Tables In Research. Les reves d’independance et d’autosuffisance des boers ressusciterent donc, autour du concept de « l’Afrikanerdom » de Paul Kruger (soit l’idee d’en enclos geographique integralement afrikaner). Feminist Criticism. Les annees suivantes furent marquees par un activisme grandissant et par l’emergence d’une hierarchisation de plus en plus definie de l’identite afrikaaner, placee au-dessus de toutes les autres communautes d’Afrique du Sud. List Of Tables Paper. De grandes greves insurrectionnelles eurent lieu en 1922, organisees par des ouvriers afrikaaners, manifestant contre le recours accru a la main d’?uvre noire meilleure marche.
Le Premier ministre Jan Smuts mena une sanglante repression qui engendra a nouveau de nombreux morts, et conduisit a l#8217;emprisonnement de plus de 5 000 mineurs afrikaners. Write A Brilliant. L’echec de ce mouvement mena a une mobilisation insolite derriere les nationalistes du Parti national, et a la victoire de celui-ci aux elections generales de 1924. List. Le nouveau gouvernement nationaliste de Hertzog commenca a agir des 1925 : l’afrikaans devint la seconde langue officielle, aux cotes de l’anglais, et un drapeau et un hymne national virent le jour suite a un consensus entre anglais et boers. How To Write Essay. Des lors, l’Eglise reformee hollandaise diffusa et generalisa, dans le cadre d’une education nationale chretienne, l’idee de la predestination des afrikaners, et elabora des justifications theologiques a la segregation ; l’apartheid legal devint une idee sous-jacente. En 1938, le Centenaire de la bataille de Blood River (qui eut lieu pendant le Grand Trek) fut instrumentalise par le pouvoir afrikaner : une reconstitution du Grand Trek, entre Le Cap et Pretoria, fut integralement mise en scene, rencontrant un immense succes populaire. Of Tables Paper. Une grande partie des afrikaners se joignirent en effet a la marche, conduisant a l’emergence d’une vague de patriotisme dans le pays. How To A Brilliant Essay. Le Parti afrikaner se rapprochait de plus en plus d’une election potentielle lors d’elections nationales#8230; Cette victoire eut lieu aux elections de 1948 : victoire du Parti national de Daniel Francois Malan, allie au Parti afrikaner de Nicolaas Havenga. List In Research Paper. Le danger de domination anglophone est definitivement ecarte et l’unite du peuple afrikaans realise. Research. Cependant, la cohesion ethnique de celui-ci reste menace par le Swaartgevaar (le peril noir). List. Le theme recurrent des nationalistes n’est des lors plus la defense de l’identite Afrikaans face aux anglophones mais celui du peuple blanc d’Afrique du Sud (anglophones, afrikaners, lusophones) menace par les masses africaines. Plan. L’apartheid est desormais represente comme un arsenal juridique destine a preserver la survie du peuple boer mais aussi comme un instrument de justice et d’egalite qui doit permettre a chacun des peuples qui constitue la societe sud-africaine d’accomplir son destin et de s’epanouir en tant que nation distincte. List Of Tables. (extrait de l’article de Wikipedia : Apartheid ) Comme nous l’avons deja evoque de maniere succincte, le phenomene d’apartheid traverse l’histoire de l’Afrique du Sud et s’est exerce, de maniere informelle, bien avant l’election du Parti national en 1948.
Neanmoins, l’arsenal des mesures juridiques (conceptualise par la commission Sauer, mis en place par le Docteur Hendrik Verwoerd et controle par le Premier Ministe Daniel Francois Malan), mis en place a partir de cette date, depasse par bien des aspects la realite de ce qu’avait pu etre l’apartheid informel. Anthropology Essay. L’apartheid bloque le systeme, fige les rapports entre races, et exclut toutes evolutions simples et pacifiques (Wikipedia). Assurer institutionnellement le developpement separe des communautes sans que l’une exploite l’autre ; Categoriser de facon systematique les individus sur la base de leur appartenance a un groupe racial ou ethnique : Blanc, Zoulou, Bantou, Indiens, Metis ; Reglementer tous les aspects de la vie quotidienne : mariage, habitat, enseignement, deplacements des personnes, emploi#8230; ; Creer des Etats ethniques, les Bantoustans , sur les terres ancestrales (13% du territoire) et donner ainsi l’apparence d’une independance pour les africains indigenes ; Garantir aux seuls Blancs un regime democratique (puis aux Indiens et aux Metis dans une moindre mesure des 1984). Of Tables In Research Paper. Les principales lois d’apartheid : Loi sur l’interdiction des mariages mixtes (1949) Loi d’immoralite, penalisant les relations sexuelles entre Blancs et non Blancs (1950) Loi de classification de la population, distinguant les individus selon leur race (1950) Loi de suppression du communisme, permettant d’interdire tout parti politique catalogue comme communiste par le gouvernement (1950) Loi d’habitation separee, repartissant les zones urbaines d’habitation (le fameux Groupe Areas Act de 1952) Loi sur les laissez-passez pour les plus de 16 ans (1952) Loi sur les commodites publiques distinctes (les toilettes, les fontaines et tous les amenagements publics) (1953) Loi d’education bantoue, concernant le programme scolaire des Noirs (1953) Retrait du droit de greve et de resistance passive aux travailleurs noirs (1953) Loi de relocalisation des indigenes, permettant de deplacer les populations noires vivant en zones declarees blanches ( Native Resettlement Act 1954) Loi sur le travail et les mines, formalisant la discrimination raciale dans le monde du travail (1956) Loi sur la promotion de gouvernements noirs autonomes, creant les bantoustans sous administration des non Blancs (1958) Loi de citoyennete des Noirs des homelands, retirant la citoyennete sud-africaine aux Noirs issus de communautes ethniques relevant de Bantoustans deja crees (1974) Decret sur l’Afrikaans, obligeant toutes les ecoles, meme noires, a dispenser en afrikaans tous les enseignements de maths, de sciences sociales, d’histoire et de geographie du niveau secondaire (1974) Loi sur l’interdiction aux Noirs de l’acces a la formation professionnelle (1976) Face a cette segregation generalisee, injustice legalisee, les reactions ne se firent pas attendre. Fieldwork Essay. Deux evenements dramatiques, deux massacres , furent a l’origine des premieres breches reelles dans le systeme d’apartheid en Afrique du Sud#8230; Le massacre de Sharpeville s’est deroule en mars 1960 a Sharpeville, un township de la ville de Vereeniging dans le Transvaal. List Of Tables. Il s’agit d’une repression policiere arbitraire a l’encontre de militants noirs manifestant contre le port du pass , le passeport interieur obligatoire pour les Noirs. Anthropology Fieldwork. Cet evenement fut a l’origine de la mort de 79 personnes sur 178 blesses, et l’on decompte parmi elles un nombre tres important de blesses par balles, tirees dans le dos#8230; Premiere onde de choc, nationale et internationale, qui sera a l’origine d’une attention nouvelle accordee par l’Etranger sur la situation encore mal connue d’Afrique du Sud.
Les emeutes de Soweto , second evenement, eurent pour point de depart la revolte d’adolescents noirs venus manifester pacifiquement contre l’imposition de l’enseignement en langue afrikaans. Ce jour de juin 1976, la police recut la consigne du ministre de l’Interieur, Jimmy Kruger, de retablir l’ordre a tout prix et d’user de tous les moyens a cet effet . List. Il en resulta une succession de tirs de la police sur une foule desarmee, faisant officiellement 23 morts et 220 blesses. Free Business. Certaines estimations poussent jusqu’a plus de 500 le nombre des blesses#8230; La repression policiere devint, apres ces massacres, de plus en plus severe contre les mouvements de contestation issus de la Communaute noire ; les Nations Unis commencerent a poser les premiers pas du boycott qui frappera l’Afrique du Sud tout au long des annees 1980. List In Research. C’est neanmoins a ce moment precis, ou les choses semblaient empirer de jour en jour ,que, sans doute, le delitement de l’apartheid posa ses premieres bases#8230; La decennie 1980 fut marquee par des condamnations internationales qui ebranlerent le pouvoir blanc afrikaner. Free Business. Par definition, l’apartheid est un systeme qui genere des frustrations chez tous les groupes desavantages qu’il designe. List In Research Paper. De plus en plus conscients de l’injustice dont ils etaient victimes, ces groupes s’organiserent (au sein de l’ANC, du Mouvement de la Conscience Noire #8230;), et parvinrent progressivement a elargir leurs soutiens.
L’African National Congress, ou ANC, devint alors une organisation de defense du peuple noir a portee militaire, en se specialisant dans des camps d’entrainement en Angola, en Tanzanie et en Zombie. Des 1979, elle commenca a mener des actes contestataires, au sein meme de l’Afrique du Sud (sabotages et attentats, a portee plus ou moins symbolique, mais parfois tres graves). Nightmare Essay. Le gouvernement apartheidien de Botha n’eut alors plus le choix, face a l’agitation interne et a la pression occidentale croissante. Of Tables Paper. Il assouplit l’apartheid en retirant certaines lois discriminatoires, tout en continuant a affermir la repression policiere. Research Paper Proposal. Finalement, aux election de 1989, l’heure de la liberation arriva : l’accession au pouvoir de Frederik de Klerk fut a l’origine d’une nouvelle donne politique.
Celui-ci accepta en effet de reformer le systeme et d’ouvrir la question de la propriete fonciere. Of Tables Paper. Les partis politiques dissous furent de nouveau autorises, et des negociations officielles commencerent entre le gouvernement et l’ANC. Feminist Essay. Au final, la majorite des lois d’apartheid furent definitivement abolies entre 1989 et juin 1991. List Of Tables Paper. Du cote des afrikaners conservateurs, les utopies communautaristes furent rapidement abandonnees en faveur de la seule solution viable, l’acceptation. Free Download Business. Suivant l’adage s’adapter ou mourir , les derniers bastions nationalistes opterent alors pour l’ouverture politique envers la majorite noire du pays. List. Finalement, apres quatre annees de negociations constitutionnelles, les premieres elections multi-raciales se deroulerent en avril 1994, debouchant sur l’election de Nelson Mandela, premier president noir de la Republique d’Afrique du Sud. Le choix d’un grand homme, par un grand peuple, pour une grande cause.
Ainsi s’acheve l’histoire de l’apartheid en Afrique du Sud, apres plus de quarante annees de racisme institutionnalise. Anthropology Fieldwork Essay. Ainsi debute h’Artpon n°2, pour une traversee profondement humaine entre Art Histoire#8230;
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Words: 342 - Pages: 2. academic or license information, i.e., BSN, RN) • University of Phoenix • Course Number and Course Title • Facilitator’s Name and Title (first and last, with academic title, i.e., MSN, MBA, PhD) • Date Submitted **All lines are double-spaced (no single or triple-spacing) throughout the entire document. The standards outlined in list, this sample paper are within APA guidelines; however, your instructor may have additional requirements. APA Writing Style APA does not permit use of the word. Words: 5607 - Pages: 23. How to every dictator nightmare Format a Paper in Apa Style. for Billing Specialists (ME1420) Instructor Name November 24, 20XX How to Format a Paper in APA Style Your college papers here at in research, Ultimate Medical Academy will all be formatted the same way. Once you learn the correct format, you will not have to worry about every dictator nightmare, how to prepare your written assignments. It is important to learn American Psychological Association (APA) writing guidelines because all Ultimate Medical Academy assignments must be formatted in the APA style shown in your Ultimate. Words: 659 - Pages: 3. Chapter 4 Marketing and Implementation Plan I. Executive Summary As its name suggests, an executive summary summarizes, or reviews the main points of, a longer document or report for a reader that does not have time to read the entire report. An effective executive summary analyzes and summarizes the most important points in the paper or report, and will often make a recommendation based on list in research, the analysis.
Executive summaries are “stand alone” documents that are almost always read. Words: 1036 - Pages: 5. References Timothy A Judge, Chad A Higgins, Carl J Thoresen, Murray,R.Barrick. Proposal. (1999). The big five personality traits, general mental ability, and career success across the life span. Personnel Psychology, 52(3), 621-652. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220148920?accountid#x3D;12085 TOK, S., amp; MORALI, S. L. (2009). TRAIT EMOTIONAL INTELLIENGENCE, THE BI FIVE PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHER CANDIDATES. Social Behavior amp. Words: 422 - Pages: 2. about properly generating the parts of of tables paper your APA-formatted paper. Notice that there is Research Paper, no extra spacing between the paragraphs or sections.
The major components of in research paper your paper (abstract, body, references, etc.) each begin on a new page. These components begin with centered headings at the top of the first page. Essay Papers. (You can see how major components of text get divided in list in research paper, this freely available sample document: http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf ). Essay. Some papers have. Words: 1072 - Pages: 5. Writing Assignment (Part 1): Identifying the Hypothesis: Terrorism as a Social Status It’s one of the biggest topics in the news, and it’s not going to go away any time soon: terrorism. List In Research. In Iraq and Syria, a new enemy has risen; a new group who might pose the biggest threat yet, since 9/11. They have a handful of names, but is most recognized by the abbreviation ISIS. In their home lands of Iraq and Syria, two war-torn countries, it makes sense (to a degree) that they would be able to.
Words: 359 - Pages: 2. Sample Annotated Bibliography in Apa Style. Sample Annotated Bibliography in APA Style (Based on Publication Manual, 5th ed. Anthropology Essay. 2001 and APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 2007) Karin Duran, Ph.D. Paper. email@example.com The following annotated bibliography is one possible, general example. Students should be alert and adhere to anthropology fieldwork specific requirements that might vary with each professor’s assignment or to the course subject discipline. APA now requires the use of the DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if the list of tables, DOI is known, in. Words: 478 - Pages: 2. , remember to nightmare essay double space the of tables paper, entire paper using the double space functionality in Word. This template is already formatted for double spacing.
Read more: Center for Writing ExcellenceTutorials and GuidesSoftware Tutorials and GuidesFormatting Tutorial for APA. In addition, keep in Proposal, mind an academic essay should contain at list, least five paragraphs, which includes the introduction (introductory paragraph), the free business, body (which is generally at least 3 paragraphs), and the conclusion (generally one paragraph. Words: 353 - Pages: 2. entry page for the document you are using. Also, if there isn#x27;t a date available for list, the document use (n.d.) for no date. Fieldwork Essay. If you have a source that is in research, neither a website nor a book, you can go to the Purdue Online Writing Lab (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/) to find examples. Words: 815 - Pages: 4. We Are What We Eat: A Response to Michael Pollan Griffin Gearhart Goldey-Beacom College Food politics of America: An Elaboration of Michael Pollan’s Six Rules You Quite literally are what you eat, and in today’s society it is becoming harder and harder to be a healthy person. In my own experience growing up in America, it is dictator nightmare essay, actually easier to fall victim to an unhealthy diet than to a healthy one. This is because the faster, cheaper, and easier meal options are usually the most.
Words: 855 - Pages: 4. references in the paper. You will find important health information regarding minority groups by exploring the following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) links: 1. Minority Health: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/index.html 2. Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/populations/remp.html Prepare this assignment according to list in research paper the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Words: 257 - Pages: 2. Writing for Publication Jane Doe Excelsior College Abstract Writing for publication is more than opportunity for professional development.
It is a responsibility of all health care professionals. Unfortunately, many health care professionals, especially those outside of ap euro rubric academia are unfamiliar with the paper, publication process. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the free business plan software, publication process from list paper conception of the idea through actual. Words: 918 - Pages: 4. CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGS Introduction Many doctors keep their records an free download plan software old-fashioned way, through paper records. Paper records need a large storage space. As his patients add up, his storage should also add up. Retrieving paper records require some time. Doctor’s assistant goes through their paper records. List Of Tables In Research. Medical record system will make retrieving and criticism essay updating records much easier and simpler. This will also lessen the list of tables in research paper, storage space in nightmare essay, the clinic.
With. Words: 617 - Pages: 3. Here in of tables paper, Full [Since the essay, introduction is clearly identified by its position in the paper, there is of tables paper, no heading called “introduction” even though a section in the grading rubric lists it as part of the anthropology fieldwork essay, requirements.] The purpose of this paper is to of tables paper provide a brief overview of APA format. The School of Nursing at Old Dominion University requires that all written assignments be completed using current edition of APA format. The information that follows is taken from the 6th edition of the Publication. Words: 2318 - Pages: 10.
Sample Essay for termpaper Presented Problem After examining the incident, there are some key things that stick out as major risks, these include: • Accounts existed before EHR system was deployed. • Accounts were undocumented. • Non Authorized remote users had access to the EHR application. • Undocumented account was created/added to a new system. Every. • Method or Vulnerability to gain privilege escalation outside of change control policy. This led me to list of tables propose three policies. Words: 1204 - Pages: 5. Title of Document Author St. Edward’s University Month day, year Course Title of Document The School of Management and Business and essay other SEU graduate programs have adopted American Psychological Association (APA) as its format for papers. The School of Management and Business Website has a template that can be used when the APA format is required for list in research paper, a paper. Access it at http://think.stedwards.edu/business/writingresources and download APA TEMPLATE, 6th edition as a template to the. Words: 2311 - Pages: 10.
/pilot_handbook/ Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2013). APA style. Purdue University. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/ Sims, R. R. (2000). Changing an organization#x27;s culture under new leadership.
Journal of Business Ethics, 25(1), 65-78. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy. Every Nightmare. libproxy.db.erau.edu/docview/198201671 Table 1 Sample Table Describing Fake Data Variable A Variable B. Words: 846 - Pages: 4. Research Paper Sample Outline: Paper Topic: What factors caused the United States to Enter World War I Using the following example, write an outline for of tables, your research paper. You may use bullets as you sketch out your paper with sentence fragments or notes style. Introduction: Hook: ? It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the Paper Proposal, foreign world. o Quote by Washington set the precedent early on of tables in research paper, that the U.S. Ap Euro Dbq Essay. would avoid becoming. Words: 523 - Pages: 3. that occupies more than four typed lines should be indented five spaces from the left margin. In a student paper, a block quotation may be single or double spaced, without quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quoted material.
Its right margin should be set at 1. Its parenthetical citation should be placed after the of tables in research paper, block#x27;s last item of how to a brilliant essay punctuation. (Smith, 1988, p. 16) I suggest printing this template to make sure that your printer is properly configured to produce an APA page. It. Words: 439 - Pages: 2. Sample Introduction of Term Paper. , laborious and costly. Of Tables Paper. Thus making their workload gradually increases with the growing amounts of grades and student lists that need to Paper Proposal be attended. It becomes tedious on the part of the instructor to proficiently manage them in time for documentation and file submission to list of tables in research paper the higher education authorities.
As such, this paper aims to produce a workable computerized grading system that will address these issues. Words: 373 - Pages: 2. by: [The University of Manchester Library] Date: 01 December 2015, At: 11:00 Compare, 2015 Vol. 45, No. 5, 664–685, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2014.928508 International education policy transfer – borrowing both ways: the Research, Hong Kong and England experience Downloaded by of tables in research [The University of Manchester Library] at 11:00 01 December 2015 Katherine Forestier* and Michael Crossley Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK This paper analyses how the. Words: 9716 - Pages: 39. The Owl By Jackie Kay Will a dear kinship? be the way to adapt to life and every dictator overcome fears and challenges? This is by of tables paper all accounts the every dictator essay, case in Jackie Kay#x27;s short story Owl written in 2012, where the two fundamental characters together experience a youth occasion covering with an experience with an owl.
The story lets us know how both of these episodes shapes the fellowship between the principle characters and how it turns into of tables in research, a long lasting walk together in criticism, this life additionally a trip. Words: 1096 - Pages: 5. between five and seven spaces by pressing the of tables, Tab key one time on the keyboard. In addition, remember to double space the entire paper using the double space functionality in Word. This template is already formatted for double spacing. Every Nightmare Essay. Read more: Center for Writing ExcellenceTutorials and GuidesSoftware Tutorials and GuidesFormatting Tutorial for APA. In addition, keep in list of tables in research, mind an plan academic essay should contain at least five paragraphs, which includes the introduction (introductory. Words: 437 - Pages: 2. Title in Upper and Lower Case Your Name Chamberlain College of Nursing Course Number: Course Name Term Month and Year Title of your Paper in Upper and Lower Case (Centered, not Bold) Type your introduction. Although the first paragraph after the paper title is the introduction, no heading labeled Introduction is used. Paper. Refer to your assignment guidelines for the headings to be used for the body of the paper.
See the APA file in Doc Sharing for Proposal, additional resources. Level 1 Paper. Words: 254 - Pages: 2. IMF reiterates need for list in research, PHL to scale up critical infrastructure build-up by Bianca Cuaresma - March 1, 2016 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) said while the Philippines has yet to catch up with peers in criticism, the region in both quality and quantity of infrastructure, the $285-billion economy should benefit later on from on-going projects and programs meant to list of tables paper bridge the gaping infrastructure gap. In a paper published on Tuesday, the IMF stressed the need for the Philippines to scale up. Words: 1079 - Pages: 5. /544/ 2/4 4/11/2016 Purdue OWL How do I create an ap euro dbq essay outline? Determine the purpose of your paper. Of Tables. Determine the audience you are writing for. Develop the thesis of your paper.
Then: Brainstorm: List all the ideas that you want to include in your paper. Organize: Group related ideas together. Order: Arrange material in subsections from general to specific or from abstract to concrete. Ap Euro Rubric. Label: Create main and list of tables sub headings. Remember: creating an outline before writing your paper.
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7 Mistakes You’re Making While Using Netflix. Interrupted Download? Here’s How To Resume In Chrome. Have you ever been in the process of downloading a large file in Chrome, then suddenly and of tables without warning, your Internet gets disconnected or your computer hangs and how to essay you are forced to reboot? A download could also be interrupted by accidentally removing the electrical power cord from the wall socket or through power outage in your area. When you finally get your computer up and running again, you agonizingly realize your download progress has disappeared and you have to restart.
If this happens a couple of times, a simple download can take ages to complete. Of Tables In Research. If you are on fieldwork, a limited bandwidth plan or your carrier throttles your data Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection? How To Avoid Data Throttling Is Your Carrier Slowing Down Your Unlimited Data Connection? How To Avoid Data Throttling If you are on list of tables in research paper, an unlimited plan that's throttled once you exceed certain limits or you have a data cap, as most people do, this article offers advice on how to ease the pain. Free Plan. Read More after you exceed the fair usage limit, the of tables, consequences of an interrupted download can be expensive. Unfortunately, unlike Firefox and Internet Explorer which allow you to easily resume interrupted downloads, this is one area that Chrome fails miserably. If you are a die-hard Chrome user, then the following workaround should help you avoid restarting a big download. Take note that I tested this in Windows 7.
This handy application is free and is part of the GNU project. Write A Brilliant Essay. Its primary purpose is to retrieve content from of tables paper web servers. The name is a combination of the how to a brilliant essay, words “World Wide Web” and of tables “Get”. Download the program and install it on your computer. Do not install it in the default programs folder. Select a different install location, because you will need to copy the failed download file to the same location as Wget’s executable file. Locate the unconfirmed download file, paste it into the same location as the Research, Wget executable file. Look in the Google Drive GnuWin32 Bin folder. Rename it by deleting the “.crdownload” extension as shown below.
Click Yes in the notification that pops up. Next, in the download location folder, press and hold down the Shift key, right click and list select Open Command Window Here . A command window should launch. Type in the following command wget -c [URL], where [URL] is the download link, and press Enter . You can find the download link by going to your Chrome downloads page using the shortcut Ctrl +J . You will notice that the download picks up where it left off before the interruption. Once the download completes, the ap euro dbq essay, command window closes. Confirm that file has been downloaded by checking the of tables paper, download location. Can You Do It With An Extension or App? Unfortunately, there isn’t a Chrome download manager that resumes interrupted downloads in how to a brilliant, same way a Firefox add-on such as DownThemAll 7 Extensions Firefox Users Love That No Other Browser Has 7 Extensions Firefox Users Love That No Other Browser Has Extensions aren't always supported across all browsers. List In Research Paper. Check out these beloved Firefox-only extensions that are so useful that you may be swayed over from whichever other browser you currently use. Read More is able do it. Criticism Papers. I tested out several popular Chrome download managers and they all failed to pick up a download at the point it was interrupted. The only paper option available was to restart the download.
Chrome simply doesn’t have this functionality yet but we hope the developers will include this feature in the next release. This is yet another thing Chrome doesn’t let you do Firefox Freedom! Four Things Chrome Doesn’t Let Users Do Firefox Freedom! Four Things Chrome Doesn’t Let Users Do Think Chrome can do everything? Think again. Here are four things Firefox users can do easily that Chrome users basically can't. Read More , that Firefox does. There is a Chrome experimental feature Using Google Chrome? Here's How to criticism papers Reach Under The Hood Customize Special Settings Using Google Chrome? Here's How to list of tables in research Reach Under The Hood Customize Special Settings Chrome is one of my favorite Google products. Dictator Nightmare. Google got a few core, basic principles right in its design, and in research instead of becoming bloated over free download business software, time like most software, Chrome remained svelte, secure, and very.
Read More that is in research paper, supposed to enable download resumption though I couldn’t get it to work in Windows 7. The feature can be accessed by typing “Chrome://flags” in your URL bar. This takes you to anthropology essay Chrome’s experimental features. List Of Tables In Research. Scroll down and look for Enable Download Resumption and c lick Enable . If this works, you should see a new context menu item labelled Resume upon right clicking on the file in Chrome’s download page . But, like I said, this is an experimental feature and the developers make no guarantees on whether it works. To the best of write my knowledge, it doesn’t work in paper, Windows 7 and I am only including this information here for the benefit of Mac, Linux and Chrome OS users who may have better luck with the feature. Finally, if you need to download a really big file, for the moment it is best to use Firefox if your Internet connection is nightmare essay, choppy. Of Tables Paper. Alternatively, you could search online for the torrent version of the file and download it using a Bit Torrent client such uTorrent. This certainly adds a twist to the Chrome Vs Firefox Vs Opera Browser Wars: Firefox vs. Chrome vs. Opera, The Definitive Benchmark Browser Wars: Firefox vs.
Chrome vs. Opera, The Definitive Benchmark If you could only dbq essay rubric choose one browser, which one would it be? Which is best: Firefox, Chrome or Opera? We'll show you. Read More debate. Have you ever had to resume an interrupted download in Chrome? How did you go about it? Share your insights and list of tables in research paper suggestions in anthropology essay, the comments below.
no use sir not working pls give a new method. Do it in Firefox. Chrome will never work. It's waste. I could never get it to work in Chrome on Mac, despite there being a resume option available - it always failed. Safari on list in research, the other hand, that resumes downloads perfectly. Please copy a new download link address and start a fresh download using mi built in browser. Please pause the download it reaches above 100 kB.
Then go to your file manager and open the downloads folder.find the last paused download and copy it's name. Then paste the write, old broken download file to list paper downloads folder and rename it. Then go to anthropology fieldwork mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to my YouTube channel ( YouTube.com/amalthomas987 ) What is mi browser? I downloaded the apllication wget . But I can't find a file with .crdownload extension . Arey yaar!!what have you done?? it has started from the beginning again.
I have done same things you said and the download started from the in research, beginning again. Please copy a new download link address and fieldwork start a fresh download using mi built in browser. Please pause the list of tables, download it reaches above 100 kB. Then go to dictator essay your file manager and open the list in research, downloads folder.find the last paused download and dbq essay copy it's name. Then paste the old broken download file to list of tables downloads folder and rename it.
Then go to nightmare essay mi browser and resume the download. More tricks subscribe to my YouTube channel ( YouTube.com/amalthomas987 ) Tried a 51.1 GB download only to wake up and find out it failed during the night. I just discovered mine was enabled by default; went through the entire flags list several times and couldn't find it, so I opened the download window. List Paper. The file had resume at the bottom, which I clicked. and it resumed and write a brilliant essay finished the download! Woohoo! I currently have Windows 7 with the latest version of Chrome, and this is all you have to do. Make sure that you didn't delete/move your uncompleted download file, and hit the three vertical dots in the top-right. List Paper. Go to downloads (you can also hit ctrl-j). Find your file in the list, and click resume. Did it just now, and it works fine. There is a browser that has a built-in download program that allows you to resume a file download.
The browser is Maxthon Cloud Browser. It is write essay, Chromium based. I have been using it for a long time. Of Tables. It had worked great. Recent updates(?) have caused problems. The download stops a lot recently.
I don't know if it is because of the rubric, browser updates, a problem with my internet source, or the list of tables in research, internet service I am downloading from. Ap Euro Dbq Essay Rubric. The speed also has been dropping off. You can pause the of tables in research paper, download and resume it. Recently it has problems which it didn't have before. Sometimes it refuses to dictator nightmare essay start the file download.
These are small files from web sites. It has other features that I love and can't find most of them in paper, other browsers. Thanks for this. When I tried on a Win10 (WGet64, not WGet) computer with a https location. It wasnt working - called it an free business software unsupported scheme. Tried the of tables paper, same link with http, it was initiating a new thread. Then, I changed the partial download file (the one with .crdownload extension) with the name of the actual fine name including extension, it worked like a charm. i can't find the enable download resumption so the last step you changed the partial downloads name from .crdownload to android studio-etc? The download URL has a username and password. Dictator Essay. How do I pass the username and of tables password in wget -c command?
wget -c URL --user USER --password PASS. how to remove the feminist criticism, extension. There is no excuse in the 2010s for failling to paper support download resumption. FTP and fieldwork HTTP certainly do support it, always have, and to have to paper use wget is just unaccceptable, period. Opera, by the way, has always resumed downloads pretty much perfectly out of the box. And DownThemAll on Firefox has also always worked.
Chrome is ap euro dbq essay, uniquely bad at list of tables in research, this, and it bodes ill for a Chromebook or ChromeOS, which I will never use or buy, for any reason, since if you can't implement simple file download resumption, you don't belong in the OS business at nightmare, all. No exceptions, no other consideration worth discussing, those OS are dead. God bless you for this awesome post. Of Tables Paper. I've always been a victim of discontinued downloads in chrome and ap euro as a result I've lost hundreds of data. However, this is not the case anymore as I tried out this method(the first one with wget) and it worked! thanks a lot for helping out.
it does not work. it says the download is 100% but it's not. Bro you trying windows xp or what ? I am trying in windows xp but without even registry editing mine is working ! It stoped at 93% now resumed it is 96% as I am typing. i dont have resume button in chrome. now what can i do? True. Didn't work in XP don't know about Windows 7. Worked for me, but I needed to have both the partially complete program and unconfirmed download file in the same folder. When I tried with only the unconfirmed download file, it started from 0%, but when I copied over the partially completed program file as well as the unconfirmed download file to the same folder, it picked off from where it had left off. This is in research, indeed horrible in Chrome.
I was downloading a game and forgot that i didn't have enough space on my disk, so the download got interrupted. I removed some old movies from ap euro dbq essay my disc, i was sure i had enought again, but noooo. couldn't continue! Thanks for the advice. List. AND F*** GOOGLE! Just found out anthropology essay how bad the user xp with sammobile is. List Paper. Either you pay 7 bucks to download ONE file or it takes several hours with 20kb/sec. 10 mins before I would have finished my router lost connection for 20 secs. At that time I found out that Chrome does not resume.
But anyway sammobile told me that the link is no longer valid, so I had to start another 2 hours download. This time I wanted to use a download manager, but guess what? They use an internal username and password so you cannot use the link in a brilliant essay, any other program. Their files cannot be found on in research, any other fileserver, although they don't seem to be copyrighted. BTW, I guess the best download manager is still Getright, as it is able to Paper download a file from several servers at the same time. I remember download resume on in research, Netscape! You talk about it like it's on the way but chrome has been around long enough. Why not implement it? There must be a reason.
The best way to dl on write essay, linux is wget. Just copy the download link and enter it into terminal. Of Tables Paper. You will have to install wget first. It's so curious that this feature is missing. Rubric. Actually. an anyone plzz tell me how to rename the file in the earlier step i am having problem understanding it. Can we please. PLEASE. cut to paper the chase. people who are pissed off at a sudden unknown network error (especially with limited bandwidth internet) are really pissed off and fieldwork essay damn near break their keyboard and mouse who'd rather not be educated on what they're looking for and get lost in link after link after link after link after link after link after description after link after link.
I cant tell you how useful this post was. I have to download a few huge files and my pc just went off at about 70% of the job. I thought I have to in research paper start it over until I've read that big blue word WGet. I fell stupid for Paper, not thinking about in research wget before google-ing for Research Proposal, a solution to list paper my problem. PS: WGet will not only resume your download, but in most cases increase the download speed. Of course if you are already downloading with the maximum speed based on your connection or the dbq essay rubric, server where the file is located then no change for you. In Chrome i was downloading 2 files, both with 250 - 270 k/s, but with wget i'm downloading one file with about list of tables in research 500 k/s and the other with about 300 k/s. PS2: Didn't heard before about experimental chrome features, thanks for the tip. Nice article and Research Paper really useful information, thanks again. Hi, Thank you very much for in research paper, the DownloadAll tip.
The extension is great. TYVM! ;) i cannot find the nightmare essay, crdownload file. List. help me. the download was failed and feminist criticism papers no crdownload file in of tables paper, download folder. just use internet download manager (idm) best the Research Paper, is, resume all downloads and you can even download YouTube videos .. I am not able to find .crdownload file in Downloads folder. Please help me out.. really really awesome man. Paper. thank god ..
Thanks. I suspected there was a way to every dictator do this and was thinking of trying to in research go to my linux box to do it, but your concise article reminded me that it was easier to grab wget for windows. You also gave me the confirmation that it would work. I'm transferring 100gb of data from every dictator one data center to another and you've saved me 15 hours of transfer time thanks to f'ing windows auto-rebooting for updates last night and stopping 70gb had been moved. Thank you for the tips, Mr. Kimachia. Manage to resume and list in research paper complete an free business plan interrupted download using the list paper, GNU Wget utility. Some Chrome-like browsers can restore downloads. For example, Citrio. My internet often fails. So to make downloads I use a software called Orbit, for windows.
Yes. One of the reasons I hate chrome, and I hate Opera 15+ because its stupid chromium again. chrome has the worst download manager among internet explorer ,firefox ..whileusing a slow connection.. In firefox while something is being downloaded a temporary file with the .part extention gets created (sometimes a file with the how to, original file name is also created ..If the download gets cancelled or interupted just cut and paste that temporary file somewhere else..restart the download wait fr sometime .again a file will be created just copy its name and in research paper rename the file copied earlier with this name . and replace the new file with the old one resume the download again ..and u will find it starts from where it got cancelled earlier. but this is not possible in chrome as once u start downloading the file getslocked you are unable to modify it.
if u want something easy use fdm or idm works like a charm. For a very long time, browser's did not have extensions like Download Them All. The saviour was a dedicated file download manager like FlashGet / IDM etc. All you had to do is paste the URL in the download manager, and write a brilliant it would do the needful. By integrating it's plugin in the browser, the download managers could also intercept downloads initiated by the browsers and take over. List Of Tables. They could also download all links present in dbq essay, a page, download files in a sequence, etc. etc.
Somehow, with browsers like Firefox that have the users covered so comprehensively, the need for external download managers has dwindled. List Of Tables Paper. Thanks to Chrome for essay, setting us back by paper, a decade. Or you could just use DownThemAll, which resumes broken downloads *and* does segmented downloading (downloading different parts of a file over different connections, like the old program GetRight, which significantly speeds things up, especially if there are file mirrors available). Oh that's right, Chrome doesn't have DownThemAll. it's for Firefox, and the DTA devs have said that any version using the new Chrome downloads API would have to be severely limited. Kihara is a writer and digital media consultant. He has a great passion for business, technology.
Connect with him via Twitter @kiharakimachia. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and list of tables in research paper Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in Portable Projectors. What is dbq essay, This, a Mousepad for Ants? The Razer Turret Lapboard Review (and Giveaway)
Best Android TV Box on of tables in research paper, the Planet for fieldwork essay, All Budgets. Turn OneNote Into Your Personal Cliff Notes Collection. 7 Mistakes You’re Making While Using Netflix. Make Gmail Work Like Microsoft Outlook With Chrome Extensions. 5 Things Windows Can Clear Automatically on Shutdown.
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Deafblind People, Communication, Independence, and Isolation. Marion Hersh; Deafblind People, Communication, Independence, and list of tables paper Isolation, The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education , Volume 18, Issue 4, 1 October 2013, Pages 446–463, https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/ent022. Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. This paper discusses issues related to communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on the experiences of 28 deafblind people in 6 different countries, obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues. However, the similarities in free business plan software, experiences between countries were stronger than the differences. In particular, barriers to communication and inadequate support, with resulting problems of isolation and of tables in research paper depression, were found in all the anthropology essay countries. Equally, deafblind people in list of tables, all the countries were interested in being involved in write a brilliant essay, and contributing to society and supporting other people, particularly through organizations of blind and deafblind people. This runs counter to the tendency to present deafblind and other disabled people purely as recipients of list of tables in research support rather than also as active participants in society.
However, there were some differences in the support available in how to write a brilliant essay, the different countries. This paper discusses issues related to communication, independence, and isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments. The discussion is based on the experiences of of tables paper 28 deafblind people in six different countries, with the term deafblind used here for people with some degree of combined hearing and visual impairment. Fieldwork! Data were obtained from interviews that were carried out as part of a larger research project on travel issues for deafblind, blind, and visually impaired people. The results reported in this paper are based on interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of a deafblind autistic woman. This paper is one of a series of three discussing the experiences of deafblind people reported in these interviews. The other two papers consider stigma and the use of assistive devices and travel issues, respectively.
The themes of communication, independence, and isolation were chosen as they emerged as important high-level themes from the coding discussed in the Coding and Analysis of the Interviews section. In addition, communication is likely to be a particularly important issue for deafblind people, due to the significance of both hearing and list vision for communication by non-disabled people, leading to possible barriers, exclusion, and isolation. The fact that many deafblind people need support with communication, access to Proposal, information, and mobility (Bodsworth, Clare, Simblett, Deafblind UK, 2011; Sense and Deafblind UK, 1999) gives rise to the risk that other people may with the best of list in research paper intentions act as gatekeepers and reduce the control deafblind people have over their own lives, making independence an important issue for them. The paper is dbq essay rubric, organized into four main sections and laid out as follows. It is introduced by an overview of the literature on in research paper deafblind people with particular reference to communication and isolation, depression, and download business independence, support and overprotection in subsections of this section. The next section presents the methodology, and list of tables paper the section following it presents the main results and discusses interviewees’ communication strategies and experiences, oral communication, isolation, and support and independence. Free Download Business Plan Software! Conclusions are given in final section. Communication can be considered a process of interaction involving the in research use of signals that are observed and interpreted by the recipient to transfer meaning (Bjerkan, 1996). Intentional communication requires the desire to Research Proposal, communicate, having something to say and someone to say it to, and an understanding that communication is meaningful (Hathazi, 2005). The following features of communication are considered important (Bruce, 2010; Miles Riggio, 1999): the type of receptive and expressive modes of communication, for example, speech or sign language; the list of tables in research perceived intent of the message; the message; and the context, including the physical environment and the characteristics of the communication partners. Deafblind people are both very varied in their communication requirements due to differences in the extent, type, and history of dictator nightmare their sensory impairments; personal characteristics and list paper the skills they have (been encouraged to) develop(ed); and write as varied as the general population on a wide range of characteristics, including interests.
The interpersonal communication languages and list of tables in research approaches used by deafblind people include the how to write essay following: Tactile sign languages: The deafblind person holds the other person’s wrists and list feels their movements as they sign. Deafblind manual alphabets: spelling using signs to represent the alphabet. There are two main approaches: The speaker signs the letter onto the listener’s flat palm; the listener puts their hand over the speaker’s vertical hand and feels the criticism essay papers movements of their fingers. Both approaches are quicker than Spartan. Tadoma: The deafblind person puts one hand on the other person’s chin, lips, or throat to feel their movements as they speak. The deafblind block alphabet (Spartan): drawing block capital letters onto the palm. Finger Braille: typing onto six fingers as a Braille keyboard. Sign language and speech give about the same speed of list of tables paper communication, whereas finger Braille, deafblind manual alphabets, and Spartan are considerably slower, with finger Braille the fastest and Spartan the slowest. However, Spartan is the Paper Proposal simplest for hearing and sighted people to use and requires only basic literacy, but no special training. Sign language, deafblind manual alphabets, and finger Braille are more efficient than Spartan, but can only be used with a much smaller group of people, such as family, close friends, interpreters, and members of the relatively small tactile signing community.
Inaccessible environments and list in research paper the various factors that restrict the activities of deafblind people may also reduce the range of topics they are able to communicate about. There is a relative limited literature on communication issues (and isolation) of deafblind people, but the focus has frequently been on every nightmare the (limitations of) the deafblind person’s communication strategies rather than the communication being considered a two-way process with equal importance given to the ability of their communication partner(s) to pay attention to and understand the deafblind person (Hart, 2010), as well as the list of tables need to overcome attitudinal, infrastructural, and other accessibility barriers. The nature of these barriers and the extent of the isolation that can occur as a result are indicated by a blog by a deafblind woman (Hill, 2010), which talks of “ostracism” of people who are “different”: people with a hearing impairment feeling “segregated, separated, left out and ostracized” and hearing people “not want[ing] to take the every dictator perceived extra effort to in research, communicate with them.” The fear of ostracism, in this case by dictator friends, was also expressed by older deafblind people participating in focus groups (Lejeune, 2010). A further illustration is provided by the first person account of an 87-year-old deafblind woman (Gribs, Dougherty, du Pre, 1995). Other than her niece’s husband who had deaf parents, her family did not know sign language and the people in her building who had learnt sign language had forgotten it. The details of the barriers experienced may depend on the deafblind person’s communication strategies and available sensory modalities. List Paper! For instance, deafblind people who use touch to communicate will require close proximity to both communicate and obtain information about the a brilliant world and the context and the interactions of of tables other people, and download plan software information about the world beyond their finger tips to be interpreted for them (Miles Riggio, 1999). If this contextual information is list paper, not provided, they will find it difficult to engage in meaningful communication even if spoken communications are interpreted for them. Congenitally deafblind people who use tactile communication may require assistance from support workers to interact with each other, as they otherwise may not perceive or be able to interpret some communications (van der Heijden, 2009). Fieldwork! Deafblind people who use spoken language may not follow shifts in conversation unless the new subject is explicitly introduced, as understanding is generally facilitated by of tables knowing what is being talked about.
Otherwise, they may withdraw to anthropology, avoid saying something inappropriate (Miles Riggio, 1999). Misunderstandings of the communication needs of deafblind people can lead to them being erroneously labelled as cognitively impaired (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen, Horowitz, Su, 2005). People who become deafblind in list paper, adult life may experience particular difficulties due to a combination of reluctance to admit their hearing impairment and a lack of knowledge and anthropology fieldwork essay experience of how to paper, communicate effectively as a deafened person. Ap Euro! The communication barriers experienced by older deafened people may be misattributed to list paper, depression or dementia. Dbq Essay! Several studies have shown that older deafblind people frequently experience communication breakdowns and find it particularly difficult to paper, engage in conversation in noisy surroundings or groups (Heine Browning, 2003). Communication barriers may lead to family and friends becoming frustrated and the deafened person feeling vulnerable and isolated, not knowing what is happening and every dictator withdrawing from social activity (du Feu Fergusson, 2003) or engaging in aggressive or self-harming behaviors (Janssen, 2003). A U.S. study of deafblind young people found indications that half of them did not use symbol-based communication, such as tactile alphabets, sign, and spoken language (Petroff, 1999), whether due to lack of access, lack of teaching, or additional impairments (Goethelf Brown, 1996). Deaf signers who become deafblind are likely to adopt tactile signing.
There are several areas, including the Cajun Triangle of list Louisiana, Seattle, and Boston, in the USA with relatively high concentrations of deafblind people who use tactile signing and regular opportunities for them to interact with each other and other tactile signers (Petronino Dively, 2006). Criticism Essay! However, outside such communities, the list of tables paper experience of transition to tactile signing may be less positive and there may only be limited opportunities to feminist criticism essay papers, communicate using tactile signing. This gives rise to questions about the necessary conditions to support a tactile signing community with regard to paper, factors such as available resources, organizational structures, and numbers or population density of tactile signers. Barriers to communication, information, and Research Paper mobility can have serious emotional and social consequences, restrict informed decision making, and reduce functional independence and the ability to of tables in research, perform daily living tasks (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen et al., 2005; DoH, 1997). Barriers to interacting with their environments, particularly for deafblind people who communicate through touch, may lead to how to write a brilliant, high levels of paper stress and/or difficulties in remaining focused. In a study of deafblind young people, a third of Proposal their parents believed they would benefit from a personalized activity plan to provide sensory input (Petroff, 2010). There is a need for the development of more assistive devices to list, support communication, additional guide-communicators, and training for hearing and ap euro rubric sighted people in communicating with deafblind people. However, factors such as high costs, lack of available training, and lack of list of tables in research knowledge of what is available can restrict access to assistive devices.
For instance, it took 3 years for one of Schneider’s (2006) respondents to obtain 5 one-to-one computer lessons. Several studies have shown that deafblind people have (signifcantly) higher rates of depressive symptoms and depression than people without sensory impairments or with a single sensory impairment (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Saunders Echt, 2007) and that both single and dual sensory impairments are strongly associated with depression in people over 50 (Capella-McDonnall, 2005; Chou, 2008). Feminist Papers! However, other studies have found that visual impairment, but not deafblindness, is associated with depression (Bazargan, Baker, Bazargan, 2001; Chou Chi, 2004). Communication difficulties and list of tables the lack of social support have been identified as the ap euro dbq essay rubric main risk factors for of tables depression in elderly deafblind people. Other factors include social isolation, the feelings of reduced self-confidence and plan security frequently experienced by list in research people with sensory impairments (Mind, 2004), loss of independence, and other people’s negative attitudes (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Brennen et al., 2005). Studies have shown that activity, including physical activity, reduces depression and that a reduction in activities can lead to an increase in depressive symptoms, with a reduction in activity believed to be one of the ways in which sensory impairment leads to depression (McDonnall, 2009). However, older adults who become sensory impaired frequently experience disruption of social activities and a change in their type and frequency (Heine Browning, 2002). Dictator Nightmare Essay! Reduced participation of about 10% in social and community activities has been reported in deafblind people over 70 (Saunders Echt, 2007). It has also been suggested that it may be the quality rather than the quantity of activities that is reduced (Clark, Bond, Sanchez, 1999), though this can be just as or even more serious than a reduction in quantity. (Deaf)blind children and young people are likely to list, have limited opportunities for involvement in physical activities and education at school due to overprotection by parents and teachers, limited expectations of their abilities, and concerns about risks to themselves and others (Lieberman Houston-Wilson, 1999).
This can impact on every dictator essay their independence and ability to list in research, take part in sports and other leisure activities later. A lack of self-acceptance and acceptance by family can also contribute to low self-esteem and depression. Focus groups have found (Lejeune, 2010) that many deafblind people over 70 are unwilling to feminist criticism papers, let other people know or possibly even accept themselves that they have a second sensory impairment, as well as wanting to protect their families from this knowledge. In Research! For instance, one long-term visually impaired man had a hearing aid for 12 years before using it due to reluctance to accept his additional hearing impairment. Independence, Support, and Overprotection. The Deafblind Persons’ Charter (quoted in DoH, 1997) notes that deafblind people are members of the community with the right to participate fully in society, have many skills and ap euro dbq essay abilities that should be developed, and list paper need services to avoid isolation. Equation of independence to the ability to carry out feminist essay papers basic tasks may lead to many deafblind people unnecessarily being labelled and treated as dependent. Other approaches to independence link it to autonomy and self-determination. Self-determination is about having agency in one’s life and being able to paper, take action to maintain or improve its quality (Wehmeyer, 2005) and involves making choices and Research Paper Proposal decisions, setting and attaining goals, solving problems, and self-awareness, advocacy and efficacy (Wood, Fowler, Uphold, Test, 2005). Independence can be defined as “control of their life and choosing how that life is led …. (and) the amount of control they have over their everyday routine” (Brisenden, 1986).
The barriers to self-determination have been categorized into list of tables paper attitudes, limited choices, and lack of experience (Adams, 1993), to which I would add poorly designed and inaccessible infrastructures, resources, and facilities. It has further been suggested that interdependence is ap euro, a more appropriate concept because we are all dependent on each other (Reindal, 1999), that independence and interdependence represent two ends of a continuum and list of tables paper that interdependence allows disabled people to become “vital contributors to fieldwork essay, their communities” (White, Simpson, Gonda, Ravensloot, Coble, 2010). In Research Paper! This then leads to the idea that disabled people are made dependent when they are prevented by social, attitudinal, infrastructural, and other barriers from contributing to society or this contribution is not valued. The negative and sometimes patronizing attitudes that impede independence of software deafblind people are illustrated by the experiences of the 87-year-old deafblind woman mentioned above, who left a day center where “the clients were treated like babies” to learn outdoor mobility, cooking, and sewing (Gribs et al., 1995). Deafblind people frequently require support to overcome the in research paper barriers to independence and active participation in society, including from other people’s attitudes, lack of anthropology fieldwork experience, and inaccessible or only partially accessible environments (Adams, 1993; Wehmeyer, 2005). Family members and professionals can support self-determination by behaving in ways that show they know that deafblind adults can make decisions about their own lives. However, informed decision making also requires access to information and resources and good communication conditions (Parker, Bruce, Spiers, Ressa, Davidson, 2010). Deafblind people may require “webs of support,” preferably involving people who are able to list, communicate with them and sustain this communication, but also try to do as much as possible without support in order to rubric, be independent of other people (Schneider, 2006). Large-scale studies of deafblind people (Bodsworth et al., 2011; Sense and Deafblind UK, 1999) have found that the majority of them required one-to-one support with communication, accessing information, and/or mobility, and were receiving some sort of support. However, informal support from family members was more frequent than formal support from professionals or volunteers, and there was a demand for more formal support.
Of the respondents in the Sense and Deafblind UK (1999) study, 42% felt that they were “prisoners in in research, their own homes” and lacked help and support even from business software, their own families. However, support from families can lead recipients to feel they are a burden, thereby increasing anxiety and depression and reducing self-esteem (Bodsworth et al., 2011), and changing the nature of relationships to one of dependency rather than equality. Deafblind young people rarely receive the support necessary for success as adults. In Research! For instance, U.S. A Brilliant Essay! studies (Petroff, 1999, 2010) found that young deafblind school-leavers were unlikely to live independently or participate in list of tables, further or higher education and had limited experience of community life and few close relationships outside the family and paid workers, though there had been some positive changes between the two studies. This reduced their chances of developing a social support network and accessing community facilities (Gee, 1994). The majority of the parents wanted their deafblind children to continue living with them, and 24% of them did not expect them to download business plan, work. Deafblind older people also lack support. For instance, focus groups have found (Lejeune, 2010) that many deafblind people over 70 felt abandoned by service delivery programs and of tables in research that people with a long-term hearing or visual impairment who developed a second sensory impairment later in life had little knowledge of appropriate services. Many older deafblind people felt that professionals did not understand their needs, and fear and anxiety prevented them investigating potentially useful resources.
A number of older respondents felt that the second impairment had resulted in job loss, due to a combination of employer attitudes, including expectations they would retire, lack of support to rubric, adjust to being deafblind, and problems with hearing aids. Deafblind children and young people risk overprotection from list in research, their parents, whereas older deafblind people may be overprotected by their children. Several researchers have noted (e.g., Janssen, Riksen-Walraven, Van Dijk, 2002) that deafblind children are at risk of overdependence and learned helplessness. They also have an every essay, increased likelihood of depression and problems of self-regulation due to more problematical interactions with caregivers. Paper! Many older deafblind people are concerned about pressures from adult children and other family members to reduce their independence and move to more structured or protected living situations. The mismatch between their desires for continued independence and the perceived attempts of family to reorganize their lives may lead to family discord (Lejeune, 2010). Although the Paper literature focuses on the needs of deafblind people for support, there are also some examples of them providing support to other people, though this area is under-researched. This includes deafblind people acting as carers for relatives (Schneider, 2006). The results reported here were obtained from semistructured interviews with 27 deafblind people and the mother of a deafblind autistic woman, which were carried out list of tables in research paper as part of a larger research project on travel issues for blind, partially sighted, and Research Paper deafblind people. List Of Tables Paper! Methodologies for surveying deafblind and other groups of disabled people are incomplete and an accepted best procedure has not yet been developed. Ap Euro Dbq Essay! This is more complicated than surveying the general population, due to the smaller numbers and the fact that readily accessible public lists very rightly do not indicate disability status.
Contacts for interviews were obtained through organizations and other researchers. The experience of each deafblind person is unique, but the experiences described here are illustrative of of tables paper those of essay deafblind people in general. Language Use and list of tables Interview Locations. I carried out all the download business plan software interviews as sole researcher and was able to use my fluency in French, Italian, Polish, Spanish (and English) to carry out interviews in these languages directly with the deafblind person without an interpreter. In Research Paper! The direct contact with the ap euro rubric participants reduced the likelihood of misinterpretation and distortion and may have helped to build rapport with them. In the case of participants using tactile or visual sign language or tactile alphabets, sign language interpreters were used. This included interpretation from Polish tactile and visual sign language to list of tables paper, Polish, and from Czech sign language to English. One interview in sign language and one in tactile sign language were interpreted by family members, and Research Paper Proposal three other interviews with tactile communicators had two stages of paper interpretation, to sign language and from sign language to tactile alphabets informal tactile signs, with the second stage carried out by family members.
Although I always addressed my questions to every dictator nightmare essay, the deafblind person, rather than the family member (or interpreter), family members generally answered in the third person. In some cases, it was difficult to of tables in research paper, elucidate whether the family member was providing their own opinions or those of the deafblind person. In a few cases, a friend or relative of the participant was present and, when necessary, repeated what I said to account for write a brilliant essay difficulties in understanding due to my voice being both unfamiliar (which is generally difficult for of tables in research deaf people) and having a strong accent. The languages and interpretation used are summarized in Table 1. Languages used in the interviews. Other than four interviews in England, three of which were carried out by telephone and one using computer-based textphone software, I travelled to the participants’ locations in their countries for face-to-face interviews. These interviews took place in the office of an organization or another convenient location for the participant. The interviews varied in free, length from 30min to three-and-a-half hours, depending on the issues that arose and the amount of of tables time the a brilliant essay participant had available.
Interviews: Structure, Themes, Flow, and Recording. The interviews were semistructured, as they were based on a list of topics or themes, but the details of of tables paper which questions were posed, how they were formulated, and the sequence in which they were posed were dependent on factors related to the participants, and essay papers the response format was open (Boeije, 2010). List Paper! This type of criticism essay papers semistructured approach was chosen as it provided both enough structure to ensure that all relevant topics were covered and sufficient flexibility to enable issues raised by the participants to be explored and the balance of time spent on different topics to be varied. It also increased the likelihood of participants discussing their own experiences, opinions, and preferences rather than reflecting back mine, and in research presenting the world from dictator nightmare essay, their perspective (Boeije, 2010). I originally wrote the list of topics in French, as France was the first country in which I carried out interviews.
I then translated these topics into Polish, English, Italian, and Spanish. Because the topics were intended to provide a framework for list the interviews (and act as a memory aid to ensure I did not miss anything) rather than provide a detailed list of questions, I considered it sufficient to obtain equivalent meanings in dictator essay, the different languages and did not consider it necessary to carry out detailed procedures to ensure that the different translations were linguistically equivalent. In line with practice in qualitative interviewing (Boeije, 2010), the list in research list of topics was modified and additional topics and/or subtopics added as the research progressed to enable me to explore issues in more detail or as additional issues arose. The aim of the interviews was to obtain rich data and to explore issues relating to the themes. The interview strategy was designed to encourage participants to ap euro, talk, including by trying to of tables paper, ensure that the interview conversation flowed easily. This meant that, other than the first question, there was no particular fixed order to the questions. Although the business wording varied, the first question was on the lines of “Could you start by introducing yourself, saying a bit about of tables in research paper yourself, what you do, your interests and the sort of dictator nightmare travelling and getting about list of tables in research paper you do.” This had two aims: to encourage the every nightmare essay participant to in research, start talking and to obtain information on which to base follow-up questions. How To A Brilliant Essay! In a few cases, participants did not like this open-ended approach and asked for clarification which I provided. However, in most cases it was successful. Some participants talked extensively about themselves, whereas others provided brief answers. In the first case, after they had provided enough information to provide the basis for several follow-up questions and talked for a sufficient length to of tables in research paper, feel comfortable with talking and answering questions, I used a pause in the conversation to Research, ask a follow-up question, for instance, about the types of places they travelled to, details of their visual and hearing impairments, or additional information and clarification of one of the topics they had referred to in the list of tables in research first answer.
In the second case, I encouraged the plan software participant to provide additional information about themselves before asking a follow-up question. In many cases, participants raised a number of topics of interest to me in their answers, and in research I had to feminist essay papers, make decisions about which topic to ask about first and paper which ones to return to later. In deciding on subsequent questions, I aimed to give the interview a natural conversational flow. Therefore, these questions asked for additional details or clarification of the anthropology fieldwork essay previous answer, raised a related topic or referred to issues raised earlier in list of tables paper, the conversation by every nightmare the participant, and asked for further information about them. The topics covered in paper, the interviews were interesting and important to write essay, the participants, and I am an attentive and very focused listener.
These factors encouraged participants to talk freely and of tables in research paper share their experiences (Boeije, 2010). Before ending each interview, I checked the list of every essay topics to in research paper, ensure that I had covered all of those that were relevant to the particular participant. All the interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and rubric transcribed by a native speaker of the list of tables paper relevant language without translation. The Czech interviews were transcribed by fieldwork essay a person who was very fluent in both English and Czech, and both languages were transcribed to allow me to list, compare the essay translations with the original. The analysis was based on the original language transcripts of the recordings.
Other than noting the eagerness of the participants who used tactile communication methods or sign language to communicate with me directly after the interviews despite my very poor tactile communication and signing skills, I did not note participants’ non-verbal behaviors. Coding and Analysis of the Interviews. Software was not used in the analysis and coding for a number of reasons, including the multilingual nature of the material. As already indicated, the list in research paper interviews were based on a list of anthropology fieldwork topics, including communication in the case of list paper deafblind, but not blind people. Thus, these topics were an obvious first choice as potential themes on which to base the analysis and discussion. Free Download Plan Software! While carrying out the interviews, I became aware of a number of list in research paper further potential themes, including isolation, overprotection, and feminist criticism essay papers stigma associated with cane use.
In the case of isolation, this awareness resulted from both participants’ comments in the interviews and the eagerness of participants who used tactile communication to communicate directly with me despite my lack of skill. Therefore, open coding 1 or the first stage of detailed exploration and organization of the data (Boeije, 2010) involved identifying a number of themes for analysis from the list of topics and those that I had become aware of during the of tables in research interviews, and ap euro evaluating their significance in the interviews. This involved reading all the transcripts and list of tables in research paying attention to criticism essay, the frequency with which the themes occurred with regard to both the number of interviews and list of tables in research paper within interviews and the types of how to write comments made about them. In Research Paper! In addition, I investigated the treatment of these themes in the literature. This process resulted in the identification of a number of free software high-level themes, as well as a few lower-level themes. Axial coding or data reorganization to obtain connections (Boeije, 2010) was carried out for the material related to of tables in research, these themes, and I may subsequently return to ap euro rubric, the additional material for in research paper further analysis. The sections of the transcript relating to the chosen themes were extracted and organized into one document. It was also only at this stage that I translated the transcripts in other languages into English, trying to remain as faithful as possible to the style and spirit as well as the meaning of the original. This meant that the orginal language transcripts were available for consultation if required. At this stage, coding involved grouping concepts and investigating the relationships between them and sometimes recategorizing concepts as a result.
This gradually led into the more analytical approach associated with selective coding (Boeije, 2010), though axial coding still continued in parallel. This phase also involved consultation with the literature and, where appropriate literature was available, relating issues to the literature. Write! Part way through the of tables selective coding phase, on advice from a colleague, I divided the material into three, giving what became this paper on communication, including changes in communication strategies, isolation, independence, and overprotection, and the two companion papers on stigma and the use of assistive devices and travel issues, respectively. I then worked on the three sets of download business material sequentially. In order to obtain a cohesive narrative for each set of material, I returned to list, axial coding and an investigation of the literature, leading to the identification of additional literature and the relationship of some further concepts to issues in the literature, though it was not always possible to find relevant literature due to the relative scarcity of the literature on deafblind people. This was followed by further analysis. During this phase, I referred back several times to download plan, the original language transcripts to verify translations and the context of participants’ comments. I also compared the transcribed versions of the Czech participants’ responses with those of the translator and in some cases modified the translations to be closer to the originals.
As shown in Tables 2–5 of participant data (with percentages to the nearest integer), the deafblind people interviewed were very varied, though, unfortunately, ethnic minority deafblind people were not represented. It should be noted that where the list of tables in research data do not add to Research, 100% this is due to a combination of missing data and rounding. Gender, age, and country profile. Note. HoH, hard of hearing; PS, partially sighted.
Age of onset of hearing and vision impairments. Note. HoH, hard of hearing; PS, partially sighted. The section is divided into four parts, namely communication strategies and experiences; oral communication; isolation; and support and independence. List! To disguise participants’ identities, they are referred to by code names, which have no relationship to their real names. Communication Strategies and Experiences. The ability to a brilliant essay, communicate and interact with other people is list of tables in research, very important, as, for instance, JG’s mother said about her autistic deafblind daughter: “She is rubric, very sociable. List Paper! … She needs contact with other people not just her family.
Not too often, or it gets too much for essay her, but she needs it.” Deafblind people generally prefer to list in research, adapt their existing communication skills rather than learn totally new ones. Successful communication strategies can be very individual and finding them can take an extended period. As LR indicated: “People who know me, know how to communicate with me. This is ap euro rubric, not worked out over one or two meetings, but a number of years.”
A deafblind person from a Deaf family is likely to have sign language as their main form of list in research communication, whereas a person from a hearing family with the same degree of hearing impairment is more likely to be encouraged to use spoken language supported by hearing aids and lipreading. However, they may learn sign language if they have contact with Deaf people or fail to fully develop any method of download business software interpersonal communication if they have very limited hearing and no opportunities to learn to sign. A deafblind signer is list of tables in research, likely to move from visual to tactile sign language as their sight impairment increases over time, whereas an oral deafblind person is more likely to use a combination of the block alphabet for feminist criticism essay papers reception and list of tables paper spoken language for transmission or may learn a deafblind manual alphabet. For instance, AR and FS both changed from Polish sign language to tactile sign language as their vision decreased. Volunteers communicated with LR, who used speech to transmit information, by printing letters on free business plan software his palm. List Of Tables! “If I knew Lorm 2 better, that would be possible, but it is faster on my palm and everyone can do this. However, people need to write clearly. In some cases this is not possible … However people can bring a laptop and write in anthropology, large letters.” A deafblind person who is blind from birth or early childhood is more likely to of tables, read Braille fluently than one who becomes blind later in life when learning Braille is more difficult. In Japan and some other countries, they may adopt finger Braille, which is generally faster than deafblind manual alphabets, as their hearing impairment increases over time, but the use of anthropology fieldwork essay finger Braille is uncommon in most of list paper Europe.
A worker in how to write essay, a deafblind organization present during some of the interviews noted the need for Braille information and devices with both Braille and audio and the unlikelihood of older people learning new strategies. “A young person who has been educated in it will know Braille and Lorm or other methods of of tables in research paper communication. Rubric! They’ve grown up with them and are familiar with them. It is difficult to teach a 70 year old Braille. …he would have had to of tables in research, start much earlier.” The wife of one of the older interviewees agreed: “NS cannot read Braille. At his age he is not going to learn it.” However, there are exceptions, including one of the interviewees who learnt Braille in her fifties. The following examples illustrate the diverse communication strategies used by deafblind people and ap euro dbq essay how they change with time.
BN had “pretty decent speech,” but often wrote down important information to check whether or not he had been understood. Most people talked to him by writing letters on his palm or using his laptop, though the latter was not feasible when he was moving around. List Of Tables In Research! He could understand the U.K. deafblind manual alphabet if used slowly, but found that few people were familiar with it. He would like to receive more information in the form of text messages. With sufficient magnification to read the feminist text, he could get two or three letters across the screen and in research had to scroll a lot to read the whole message. FP preferred sign language, though prior to free download business, learning to paper, sign at the age of 16 he had used speech and essay papers writing. List In Research Paper! He communicated with hearing people by dbq essay rubric writing and lipreading, though a reduction in in research paper, his vision was making this more difficult and he required the other person to fieldwork essay, be close by with their mouth illuminated. To communicate with FS a shop assistant “speaks and writes on her hand.” Oral deaf people generally use a combination of list of tables in research visual and audio speech information, with the how to essay visual information obtained from lipreading and the audio information frequently processed by hearing aids. List Of Tables In Research Paper! Although only 30–40% of speech is visible and many letters and words have similar or identical lip patterns, the additional visual information from lipreading can be very important in aiding deaf people to understand spoken language (Summerfield, 1992). However, oral deafblind people who do not have sufficient visual acuity are unable to lipread, leading to a reduction in their ability to understand speech.
Some deafblind people find this particularly frustrating, whereas others are philosophical about the difficulties and more concerned about the reactions of other people. RB was now totally blind and had recently started losing her hearing. Although she wore two hearing aids, she found her hearing loss more difficult to deal with than her blindness. “I feel I’ve got my blindness under control, but my deafness floors me, because I can’t read people’s lips, which is really difficult for me, but there is nothing I can do. I have to adapt and above all my family and friends need to dbq essay rubric, adapt.” She noted the way “the two disabilities aggravate the list in research situation,” since she cannot lipread whereas a friend who was “almost totally deaf, if I speak to her when I am right in front of her, she reads my lips and manages very well.” However, despite the fact that in write, discussion groups she was only able to hear “possibly a quarter of what goes on,” LB did not seem particularly upset that she was unable to lipread, as “I can’t see the lips clearly enough.” She was more concerned that “everybody else is comfortable.” SK had some vision and used speech but required good listening conditions to understand it. This is of tables, typical for hard-of-hearing people and is likely to anthropology fieldwork essay, be even more of paper a problem for deafblind people due to their limited information from lipreading. Using the telephone presented particular challenges, as is write essay, again typical of hard-of-hearing people. “If there is a lot of noise I sometimes have problems, but I generally know what they are saying. If someone sends me an SMS and I’m not able to read it normally, I have a function for spelling letter by in research letter. … That makes it easier for me to understand. … It’s more difficult than normal [to use the phone on a noisy street] … but it’s even worse when I’m on a tram and anthropology fieldwork someone rings me. I answer the call, ask who is calling and … then say I am on the tram and will ring off, as the tram is of tables paper, noisy and free business plan software everything gets muddled up.” She used the loudspeaker mode, which meant that everyone could hear the person speaking to her. “Sometimes when I go with ES [her partner] I give him the phone and he speaks for me.
He repeats what it is about, I answer and he repeats what I have said on the phone.” Some concerns were also expressed about other people’s reactions and lack of patience, though “people do try” [CF]. It is frequently easier for list in research hard-of-hearing people to understand people they know, as well as to ask them to dbq essay rubric, repeat something, but communication difficulties can make other people impatient. “If I already know someone a bit and I don’t understand it, I’ll ask them to of tables paper, repeat it, but I try to avoid this, as people don’t like repeating things. … People don’t have patience with poor hearing. I try to avoid asking people to repeat things, but sometimes … I have to…. When I’m talking to people and free business plan I say my hearing’s bad, over the last 20 years no-one has gone away because they were bored talking to me. … People might show their impatience and irritation in their voices, but they stay and try to explain. Of Tables! I can’t complain that people do not try to anthropology fieldwork, help me, but I try to be as independent as possible” [CF].
CF “generally understand[s] people, except when people talk quietly because they do not know I’m deaf … Sometimes people are offended when I don’t answer questions. I have to accept that. Sometimes I don’t understand, sometimes people are angry when I don’t answer. I remain confident, serious. … but I generally understand. Besides, I generally use the same transport. When I go to work, people often know me.” He did not always tell people he was deaf when he had problems understanding. “If I’m not able to hear, then I don’t know who to list paper, tell that my hearing’s bad. If people say something, but I’m not sure whether they are talking to me, I don’t answer, as I don’t know who to answer.”
KL had two digital hearing aids and had worn aids since she was three. She found it easier to understand people she knew. “When my classmates spoke at the start of last year I did not understand them. For instance, one of my classmates has a quiet voice and feminist criticism essay papers I did not understand her last year, but now I’m used to her and understand her better, I also pay more attention. … When someone I don’t know speaks I have to pay attention. … It depends on paper the voice.” Some of their experiences may have a humorous note and the participants may make light of them subsequently, but were very frustrating and/or distressing at anthropology essay the time. BN discussed an in research paper, incident at free plan software the post office when he went to collect a missed delivery. “I … couldn’t even see which counter was open, they all looked the same. Someone pointed me at one so I went to that and list of tables slid the card under the glass partition … no idea what they said probably wanted ID? I just showed blind reg[istration] card that has name address and states I’m reg[istered] blind … got the parcel but had to walk to free plan software, the end of the paper counter where there’s a window that they can pass it through and I couldn’t find that window but we got there eventually.” Other incidents, for instance when travelling, have the potential to be more serious and even dangerous.
The fact that transport staff have not been trained to communicate with deafblind people further complicates the situation, though some of them recognize regular deafblind travellers and know their main destination(s). Rubric! For instance, BN did not know what happened when everyone got off a delayed train he was on. List In Research Paper! “Then I noticed everyone getting off again, so I did the same but had no idea what was going on, apparently it was taken out of service. … I made my way to the assistance office and the guy on duty there took me to the next platform where another train was coming in to fieldwork essay, replace the first one. … I don’t really understand them [people in the assistance office] as they’re not too clued up on deafblind issues but they know which train I should be on to get to T [city].” Like other disabled people, deafblind people often need to find ingenuous solutions to overcome barriers. Recently when looking for a school he had not been to of tables in research paper, previously, BN realized that he was on the right road but had gone too far, as the area was becoming too built up for the park he knew was opposite it. He turned round and texted someone else going to the same meeting to essay papers, watch out for him and text him when he walked past the entrance. However, communication barriers do not end when deafblind people reach their destinations. As LR said, “It’s often not just a case of going somewhere, but doing something when you get there.” People with significant hearing impairments frequently need assistance to communicate with their doctors (Damen, Krabbe, Kilsby, Mylanus, 2005), raising the issue of the need for additional training for doctors in paper, communicating with hearing impaired people. Anthropology Essay! This parallels the findings of of tables paper recent research (Hersh, Ohene-Djan, Naqvi, 2010; Ohene-Djan, Hersh, Naqvi, 2010) on free download business the need for training for of tables in research the police, driving instructors, public transport drivers, and other personnel in communicating with deaf people.
Communication with, for instance, doctors and lawyers also raises privacy issues, which may make the use of feminist criticism essay papers volunteer or even professional guide-communicators an paper, unsuitable option. LR considered that he needed to visit doctors and officials with someone else, as “officials don’t respect deaf people, they don’t want to write everything down with large letters. … I need to go to the doctor with my wife, you cannot do everything with a guide. Software! … Few officials are willing to write things down or repeat their questions. They are impatient. … On my own there’s no point in going … only for a printed paper I can’t read.” He also experienced difficulties when shopping. In Research Paper! “I come with my basket, the assistant says something, I indicate my ears, she shows me her screen, I indicate my eyes. … Generally I work out the cost myself. I do not buy things if I do not know the fieldwork essay prices, as I cannot talk with the assistant. … It would be better if I knew what everything cost, but sometimes it’s not possible, as the prices change. … If there’s a price, I take out my magnifying glass and look at it. In Research! If there’s no price, I don’t buy it.”
Isolation was a problem for some of the participants due to a combination of the difficulties other people experienced in communicating with them and the barriers to fieldwork essay, independent travel. In Research! FS was dependent on volunteers to take her out and commented that if more volunteers were available she would like to “go for walks once or twice a week, just to get out of the house, no matter where—cafe, airport, park, town centre, just to get out free download business software of the house.” She had joined a religious group whose members collected her and took her to services, whereas her daughter said “it is very interesting, … the translation is good and she understands everything.” From her daughter’s perspective, “the meeting lasts two hours, so I get two hours off.” Though neither FS nor her daughter said anything to in research paper, indicate this, it seems open to question whether the main attraction for FS was having people to feminist essay, tactile sign with rather than any religious belief, as well as whether this matters. Many countries have very small organizations of deafblind people. Although many participants reported very positive experiences with organizations of blind people, FP’s experiences were less satisfactory. At the of tables paper Union of Deaf People he was asked “What are you doing here? Why don’t you go to the Union of rubric Blind People? However, few people sign there. Deafblind people … are rejected by both deaf and blind people. That’s very sad.” He lived with his mother who knew the list of tables paper Polish deafblind manual alphabet, but was only able to sign a few words. FP was used to lipreading her, but this was becoming more difficult for him.
Participants had also lost friends or been treated in a different way due to becoming (more obviously) disabled, though equally many of them had made many new friends and taken up new activities. RB, who was in how to essay, her seventies, noted “When I first became blind … everyone kept their distance … and I realised that this distancing was due to list of tables in research paper, … not knowing how to behave, … they felt awkward and found it easier to avoid the problem. … my children were upset that … people did not ring me any more.” This parallels the experiences of older focus group participants who feared ostracism by friends if they found out about their hearing impairments (Lejeune, 2010). Support, Independence, and Research Overcoming Depression. Becoming deafblind in adulthood, whether gradually or suddenly, is very challenging, practically, emotionally, and psychologically. Support is generally required both to learn the new skills required for independence as a deafblind person and to accept and integrate the list of tables in research new identity. Learning practical skills will generally require the involvement of professional trainers, whereas psychological support can come from a variety of sources, including family, friends, organizations of blind people, psychologists, and other professionals. However, family, friends, and deafblind people themselves may have little factual information and accept and be influenced by negative perceptions and stereotypes (Adams, 1993). For instance, VR “had never met a blind person before, so I couldn’t imagine it.
At first I thought that I would be left at Paper home waiting for someone to visit me.” Therefore, involvement with organizations of deafblind, blind, or deaf people is needed to present more positive images, as well as to obtain information and support and facilitate involvement in a range of activities. Although there have been some improvements in a number of countries, this is by of tables paper no means universal and many people are still just given a diagnosis without any further information. They are then left on their own to find out about services and training and to cope with the impact of knowing they are losing their sight and/or hearing and to every essay, come to terms with and paper intergrate this new self-image as a disabled person. As a result of this lack of support, depression is not an uncommon reaction. PV had a mini breakdown and a period of depression after having to give up driving. Research Paper! He recovered with the help of medication and counselling, but “had to fight very hard to get it on list of tables in research paper the NHS [National Health Service]. Anthropology Fieldwork! … They don’t discuss the mental and emotional psychological problems that arise. Yeah one friend of mine committed suicide just because he was going blind. … Counselling support would be a very important backup. … They need mobility support from the local authorities and they need to level the playing field out because some areas of the country can’t get mobility officers.” However, he considered that things had improved with, for instance, the national organization for blind people now providing weekends away in an adapted hotel for supportive discussions. Of Tables In Research! An initial period of depression followed the loss of GL’s sight, when she was not provided any information. “I used to read a lot. Ap Euro Rubric! When I lost my sight, I became depressed.
I didn’t know what to do with myself. List Paper! My dream in my old age was to be able to read anything I wanted whenever I wanted. I really loved handicrafts. I knew I would not be bored in feminist, my old age. List Of Tables In Research! There is very little information on where to seek help when you lose your sight.” A further cause of depression, particularly when combined with a lack of information about available support, is no longer being able to ignore slowly progressing sensory impairments or the onset of a second sensory impairment (Lejeune, 2010). Sixty-three-year-old VR was born with a mild hearing impairment and started using hearing aids when she started losing her sight 18 years ago. Free Business Plan! About 5 years ago, she stopped going out in the evening due to the start of night blindness. “I just stopped seeing my surroundings properly, … and list of tables paper I wasn’t sure about my steps.” This continued with her trying to ignore what was happening. “Then I started losing the ability to how to write, recognise colour and details and then I realised it was getting serious. … So I didn’t want to go outside the door. … I was starting to have problems with everything, with cooking, … keeping the house and list paper cleaning. Research Paper! … I was just crying and list in research crying.” When she was diagnosed, the doctors just told her the diagnosis and give her treatment, but did not tell her about any organizations for deafblind or blind people. Some deafblind people resist looking for support, including for depression (Lejeune, 2010) and/or feel that they either do not need support and should try to be as independent of other people as possible or that they are not entitled to support.
RB “did not go to anyone for help, as I would have refused to go to a psychologist, as I thought I had to manage on my own. Essay! … in the end I gradually found reasons and told myself that I did not really have depression, because I had children who were still around, … and list of tables in research paper I travelled with my husband. … I also had a lot of help from the Union of Blind People. … I had always refused the Union, … if I’d come here earlier I’d have probably suffered less. But I did not want to anthropology fieldwork essay, come. If you go to the blind Union, it means you are blind!” It was through contact with her national Union of Blind People that RB realized that “Blind people can do things!” Several other participants were also very appreciative of support from a national organization of blind people, but found out list of tables about it by chance. For instance, a chance encounter at a hospital eye department led DH to anthropology essay, the national organization of blind people and of tables in research training in a rehabilitation centre. “In the hospital they gave me a cane and told me to use it, but did not tell me how.” At the rehabilitation centre, DH, who became blind a few years ago in her fifties, quickly learnt to use the cane and to read Braille, which she continued to Research Paper, enjoy. “I learnt for myself to have contact with the written word. … I was born for a second time.” Involvement with an organization of list in research paper deafblind people enables newly deafblind or blind people to meet other (deaf)blind people who frequently act as role models, show them what is possible with regard to every nightmare essay, activities and lifestyles, and even teach them particular skills. For instance, DH was influenced by MP, who “is a very good man. … He is able to pass on his knowledge to other people. If he can work, manage a firm, his family, get around, then so can I. List In Research Paper! I have been in the local blind union for fieldwork six years. I am now the president after the list in research last elections.” Observing blind and deafblind people carrying out essay ordinary activities, enjoying life, and being happy can also be very important.
RB was influenced by WK, who she met at the local organization of blind people “but then I came here … and met WK and realised that she was independent, that she got around, I heard her laugh, saw how happy she was. It was an illumination.” VR’s period of depression ended when TL, a worker from the organization of deafblind people, came to visit her. “She told me that blind people use a cane. … I used to read a lot, but couldn’t read any more, so TL told me about Braille and that I would be able to read again. TL also helped me with mobility, so I could manage in the house on my own and list of tables in research manage the cooking and everything. Research Paper Proposal! … She told me about activities and holidays … And thanks to joining these activities I realised I that I can still go swimming, go crosscountry skiing, do lots of things.” However, there are insufficient professionals (and volunteers). For instance, the guide-communicator service in the United Kingdom provides support with both travel and communication, but is limited. BN described the of tables in research type of service he would like, with a guide-communicator available whenever and for whatever activities needed, but that was not currently available. “You should be free to just go when you want. How To Essay! let’s say you wake up on list in research paper a Sunday morning and fancy some retail therapy but you’ll need a communicator guide who just doesn’t happen to be free right now.” On the one hand, support from family members can enable deafblind people to engage in a range of activities. Every Nightmare! On the other, it may lead to dependence, and the deafblind person may feel endebted, be concerned about list what will happen if the ap euro relative dies, and feel that they have lost their privacy (Senseand Deafblind UK, 1999). List In Research! Relatives have a limited amount of free time and relatives and professionals may try to nightmare essay, restrict the deafblind person’s activities to those they approve of and consider safe rather than recognizing that disabled people, including deafblind people, are entitled to make their own decisions about risks and have the in research paper same responsibility for every dictator nightmare essay their own safety as everyone else (Tregaskis, 2004). The comments by in research AR and his wife, who interpreted into tactile sign language for him, illustrated some of these points.
AR thought he would be able to travel further on his own, whereas his wife disagreed. “He needs a guide. For instance, he goes to a brilliant essay, the shop and in research bumps into a shelf with goods and everything falls. If a child cannot see from when it is small, it has learnt. The school has taught it. It is very difficult to teach an adult. He does not know what is happening.” It was difficult to get a reply from AR directly. However, he became very stressed when asked if better training with a cane would help him become more independent. “If my wife went and left me on my own, I would commit suicide, because I would not know who would do the shopping and help me.” Both AR and his wife agreed on the communication difficulties, with AR noting “There are difficulties in translation. I am with my wife every day, we are used to each other and we understand each other very well. Criticism! When I have an interpreter … I don’t understand him, we don’t have contact.
It needs practice.” His wife stated that “It is difficult for him to communicate. It is very hard for a deafblind person on his own, because he gets bored, he is paper, not able to contact people. He needs a wife. If he had good vision, he would be independent.” In some cases of overprotection, the solution is just to ignore the opinions and concerns of family and friends. For instance, RB “didn’t ask them, I just took the cane and went out.” However, this requires considerable self-confidence and may also put tension on feminist criticism essay papers family relationships.
Professionals may also both provide support and restrict the activities of deafblind people as a result of list of tables paper (over)protection. HK received some orientation and mobility training, but was discouraged by his instructor from travelling on his own. “I had orientation and mobility training, but have not been able to travel on my own, my hearing loss could make it dangerous. … [When I had orientation and mobility training my hearing] was a bit better, but my instructor did not want me to travel on my own. He was afraid … If you could hear, at the end of the course you were able to Research Proposal, travel independently, to travel home on list your own. In my case it would have been too dangerous, so they did not want to give me permission. … I know a lot of techniques of fieldwork essay using a cane, it’s just a question of my hearing. If you can’t hear you have to use a guide.” However, a number of deafblind people do travel independently and it seems that HK was not given sufficient information to evaluate the risks and paper make a decision for himself. This is an example of the anthropology essay way in which disabled people are made dependent by of tables in research being prevented from taking risks or not given the information to every, make informed choices about activities involving a degree of risk (Perske, 1972; Tregaskis, 2004). Deafblind people are not just passive recipients of support. They are also able to provide support to other people and/or become active in community, campaigning, political, and charitable organizations. Four of the paper interviewees were on essay the executive committees of organizations of of tables in research blind or deafblind people: SG and LB were the presidents of small national organizations for deafblind people, and DH and GT the presidents of the local branch of a national organization for blind and deafblind people respectively. SG was involved with his organization and the support of a research institute in write a brilliant, developing an “internet kiosk” to give blind and visually impaired people access to newspapers. Previously he had worked for many years for the national organization of blind people and been involved in developing rehabilitation programs.
GT was involved in a project evaluating internet services and once a week provided computer training for list in research blind, partially sighted, and deafblind people. A Brilliant! He also worked and was responsible for of tables paper one of the feminist criticism papers regional departments of his firm. As he said “I do a lot. I am not a passive person.” The need to be involved in society and to help other people was expressed very clearly by DH: “The worst thing is to shut yourself up in of tables, the house and do nothing. … To help even one person … to Research Proposal, help them learn to live again would be a great success.” The need to do something of value and contribute to society is list of tables in research paper, just as important for deafblind as for non-disabled people. Feminist Papers! This sentiment was very clearly expressed by FP’s mother, who interpreted for him. “We come here [Deafblind Centre] to help make flyers. Of Tables In Research Paper! We have a need to help. A while ago there was a sign language class, so he came along as a volunteer. He was eager to help. … It did not pay, but it was even more important to him from the anthropology psychological point of list of tables view to be needed.” This paper has discussed communication, independence, and criticism papers isolation for an understudied group of deaf people who also have visual impairments, using data from semistructured interviews in of tables in research paper, six different countries with 27 deafblind people and fieldwork the mother of an autistic deafblind woman.
Although the aim was to obtain rich data rather than a statistically representative sample, interviews were carried out with deafblind people with a range of different characteristics, though there were no deafblind people from ethnic minority groups. The themes that emerged included the barriers to communication, the changes in communication strategies over list paper time, the need for support, including in overcoming these barriers, the differences between support and overprotection, and Research Proposal the problems of isolation and depression, as well as the fact that deafblind people want to make a contribution rather than just be passive and are, therefore, actively involved in organizations of list in research paper blind and deafblind people and in providing support to other people. The research participants used a variety of different communication strategies, determined largely by their available senses and Proposal communication skills. Many of them had changed communication method, for instance, from sign to tactile sign language or to printing letters on of tables paper the palm in addition to speech, as their hearing impairment increased. Several of the respondents used speech supported by hearing aids and lipreading. The combination of the two impairments and difficulties in lipreading were both issues for these participants. They felt that other people “tried” and did not like to ask them to repeat things, as well as finding it easier to understand people they knew. There is rubric, a need for better training in communicating with deafblind and deaf people for of tables many groups of workers, particularly those who interact with the public. Although some of the communication difficulties experienced were purely frustrating, others had the potential to put the person at risk. In the literature, there has been a tendency to consider communication problems to be purely a consequence of the anthropology fieldwork deafblind person’s impairments rather than the attitudinal and infrastructural accessibility barriers and other people’s lack of list of tables paper knowledge about communicating with them.
In the interviews, deafblind people generally took responsibility for other people being able to understand them rather than seeing this as a social responsibility. Although this further illustrates the fact that deafblind people are responsible members of essay society who are eager to participate in and contribute to it, there is a need for greater social and communal responsibility for list of tables in research communicating with deafblind people, as well as recognition of the disadvantages to society as a whole from their exclusion. A combination of barriers to communication and rubric independent travel had left a number of the participants very isolated. In Research! Participants who did not go out (beyond the free download business local shops) on their own were dependent on list in research paper family members, volunteers, and sometimes professional guide-communicators. There were generally too few volunteers available and Research Proposal even fewer professional guide-communicators, leading to both pressure on family members and isolation of deafblind people. One of the paper respondents expressed the Research resulting isolation and the need “just to get out of the house, no matter where” particularly clearly, whereas her daughter expressed the need for additional activities for deafblind people as well as the need for support from professionals and list in research paper volunteers to enable her to have “time off.” There is free business, thus a need for a wide range of of tables activities to be made accessible to deafblind people through communication (and travel) support and activities organized specifically for deafblind people that take account of their communication needs.
Discussions of Research independence and support in the literature often equate independence to the ability to carry out daily living activities, so that deafblind people are generally considered dependent and to require support to overcome their functional limitations. Alternative approaches consider independence in terms of in research autonomy and decision making and interdependence with regard to contributing to and participating in feminist criticism papers, the wider society and list of tables this contribution being valued. Write! This then leads to of tables, consideration of the Research Paper support and other measures required for deafblind people to participate in and contribute to society. The different approaches have significant practical as well as theoretical consequences, because the list in research policy and support measures for how to deafblind people are generally determined by the dominant theories, and the resulting low expectations and negative attitudes are considered barriers to self-determination (Adams, 1993). Two participants eloquently expressed the list of tables paper need to be active, participate in society, and make a contribution. The engagement of deafblind people as active citizens and in providing support for other people was illustrated by the fact that four of the nightmare participants were the presidents of national or local branches of national organizations for blind or deafblind people and that a fifth participant volunteered at of tables his local center for blind people. Although not represented amongst the anthropology fieldwork essay interviewees, a number of deafblind people act as carers or personal assistants to older or disabled relatives. Although changes are probably taking place, at least in list in research paper, some countries, most of the participants were given a diagnosis with little subsequent support or follow-up. For a number of the interviewees, this lack of write support led to shorter or longer periods of depression. Several of them mentioned the role of their national organization of in research paper blind or deafblind people in providing support, engaging them in activities, and showing them that they could still have a good quality of life. They also mentioned specific individuals active in these organizations who acted as role models and showed that “[deaf]blind people can do things.” Although many of the respondents were grateful to organizations of deafblind or blind people for their support and showing them that they could still have a good quality of life, one respondent had found that organizations of both blind people and deaf people were less than welcoming.
Some of the respondents initially resisted the idea of support or the idea of involvement with an organization of Research blind people, as that would involve accepting that they were indeed blind. There seemed to list of tables, be greater similarities than differences in the experiences of participants in the different countries with regard to communication barriers, depression, and isolation. However, there were differences in the availability of how to write essay support, including in organized services of volunteers and the availability of professional guide-communicators. Where professional guide-communicators were provided, for instance, in the United Kingdom and list of tables the Czech Republic, there were too few of them. Support was provided in all the countries by organizations of criticism papers deafblind, blind, and list of tables in research paper deaf people, though the dictator essay resources of these organizations and list of tables in research paper the support they were able to provide differed.
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