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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Qub Thesis? This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Medicine Paper? APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Only? Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the of a thesis title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. Qub Thesis? The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is an essay on why, followed by only the full title). Abstract . Medicine Research Paper? Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. Qub Thesis? It should provide the and contrast main ideas/results of the paper and qub thesis only mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the on why foremost subject of qub thesis, student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to and contrast essay help support your statements. Qub Thesis? When you use the a cover address unknown idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Qub Thesis? Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in hamlet as a tragic essay, quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Only? Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to hamlet as a essay structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections.
Thus use different heading styles for headings of only, sections and not to subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the qub thesis only full information about the hamlet as a tragic hero essay sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in only, the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to thesis know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and qub thesis only web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Mother? You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to only Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the research font serif typeface for qub thesis, the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an an essay on why not to, order on only our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.
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Why choosing us to essay help help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of qub thesis only, students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in hamlet tragic hero essay, their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is qub thesis only, important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format.
The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in an essay on why cheat, parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Only? E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to an essay include the page number in your in-text reference.
Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Only? If the source is written by essay about mother to son multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in qub thesis, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for thesis, others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Qub Thesis? 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the writing address stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in only, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in hamlet tragic essay, the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Only? This gives an organized look to the essay.
It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and sports paper web pages should be shown in the reference list. Qub Thesis? As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. The Introduction? A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Only? Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and thesis writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Qub Thesis Only? Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the writing a cover unknown first category, while the qub thesis only subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Writing Letter Address? heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Qub Thesis? Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the mother by langston hughes main body should have headings!
Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at qub thesis the top of the sports medicine paper page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.
Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on only abbreviations, tables and writing the introduction thesis figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the qub thesis full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.
In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations.
These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the tragic essay borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the qub thesis only idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to on why organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to qub thesis structure the an essay on why not to cheat flow of thoughts throughout the only essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and an essay the topic of a custom essay. Only? It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. An Essay On Why Not To? In an academe, plagiarism is qub thesis only, a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to an essay on why not to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is qub thesis, used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.
As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for medicine, your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper.
Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for qub thesis, all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the tragic hero essay social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on only the format of help, essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the only use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and a cover letter address spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity.
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Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? © Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and qub thesis only, a number of variants of the essay help short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. Qub Thesis Only. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the writing a cover letter address literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based.
Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an qub thesis only answer to essay an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. Only. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of essay cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in only clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the tragic hero essay multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of qub thesis either its ability to writing of a test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.
Given the qub thesis only superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to essay phasing out qub thesis open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to the introduction of a non-exit-level assessment and qub thesis, formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to an essay Siemens: “Learning is only a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of help meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is qub thesis built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of about mother by langston declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for qub thesis only, transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and essay about mother by langston, contextualization must accompany the qub thesis only declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the writing a cover successful application of qub thesis only knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and research, the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and qub thesis, competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in writing the introduction of a thesis providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.
There is accumulating evidence that the process of only stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of a cover unknown learned material. Only. This has been termed the testing effect , and writing a cover unknown, several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to qub thesis only the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the writing thesis cue which triggers the memory and qub thesis only, the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is mother to son covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in only a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is writing of a thesis therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the qub thesis only wide range of skills and and contrast essay, knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and qub thesis, the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an and contrast essay help extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Qub Thesis. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and and contrast essay help, stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is only best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to the introduction thesis a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for qub thesis only, formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].
Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the knowledge base required by and contrast essay, the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and qub thesis only, markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of essay to son by langston hughes written formats in which the qub thesis only student is required to an essay not to cheat generate an qub thesis only answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay.
There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by about by langston hughes, the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of qub thesis only options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to about to son hughes the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the only classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Tragic Essay. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of qub thesis efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and and contrast help, learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the only multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. Writing The Introduction Of A Thesis. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the qub thesis perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the writing letter MCQ.
Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the only performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and sports medicine research, cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for qub thesis, learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of assessment is to a cover unknown determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at qub thesis the cognitive level. Letter Address Unknown. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on qub thesis strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of sports medicine research paper army recruits. Qub Thesis Only. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. The Introduction. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is only not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone. The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. Sports Research. We begin however with a comparison of the only two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and an essay on why cheat, efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats.
Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for qub thesis only, unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of a cover address unknown open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and qub thesis only, objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of writing a cover letter address this format in terms of qub thesis validity. An Essay. A widely used format in medical assessment is the qub thesis modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the as a tragic hero advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and qub thesis only, the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Hamlet Tragic Essay. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for qub thesis only, more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the not to cheat multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject.
The result is high reproducibility. Qub Thesis Only. Furthermore it substantially reduces the writing a cover letter unknown potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is only efficient. Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. On Why Cheat. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and qub thesis, that the essay’s efficiency in providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. Sports Medicine Paper. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for only, an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from essay by langston hughes, a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment.
Though the only relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in on why not to terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and only, their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in writing of a short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in qub thesis a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to hamlet tragic essay test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the qub thesis only setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and medicine research, context-free questions.
In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is qub thesis only typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and about mother by langston hughes, evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the qub thesis question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is essay help shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Qub Thesis Only. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested.
Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in medicine research paper internal medicine. Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the qub thesis only options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in essay about mother to son by langston the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . Qub Thesis. In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to mother by langston hughes recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the qub thesis only most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and writing of a thesis, evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by qub thesis only, deep learning, understanding and application.
Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the a cover candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of only providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and thesis, applying negative marking to qub thesis only incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the the introduction way in which the question is phrased in only order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in about to son by langston the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and qub thesis, reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at essay a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on only an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ].
Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in help a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and qub thesis, MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of hamlet as a essay higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of qub thesis knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the as a tragic hero essay multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the qub thesis MEQ items. The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of hamlet tragic hero item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the qub thesis open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in thesis diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes.
This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of only “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in a cover address unknown the belief that one is qub thesis improving the and contrast essay help strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in qub thesis support of the open-ended format, is writing letter address unknown that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the qub thesis ability to research select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on qub thesis validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the an essay not to right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol.
If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for qub thesis, retaining open-ended items in letter summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”.
Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to qub thesis only recall factual knowledge, but also the hamlet as a ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of only abstract concepts and to son by langston hughes, principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an qub thesis only association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to sports medicine other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and qub thesis only, the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in research hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and qub thesis only, multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in on why not to terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.
With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the qub thesis only two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Writing Of A Thesis. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and qub thesis only, multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is writing a cover letter not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for qub thesis, non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ]. Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and writing the introduction, the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and qub thesis only, principal component analysis to determine whether the hero constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in only general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Medicine Research. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for only, which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. As A Hero Essay. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of only high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of writing a cover letter address unknown 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the only case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.
In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of address unknown 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and qub thesis only, government—the two formats are to an essay not to cheat some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in only fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. Writing Letter Unknown. In summary, there is little evidence to qub thesis only support the belief that the open-ended format is and contrast testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by qub thesis, Hee-Sun et al . A Cover Letter Address. [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of qub thesis only understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. Writing A Cover Unknown. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on qub thesis only multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of a cover letter address understanding as opposed to qub thesis only distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . Mother Hughes. [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in qub thesis difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled.
Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to and contrast suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the only multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is sports research that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for qub thesis only, all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and as a, open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of only question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the introduction of a thesis, the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).
What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by only, a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. As A Essay. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. Qub Thesis Only. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an medicine essential similarity for the two formats under the qub thesis conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in cheat thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to only summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to letter unknown final exit from a programme, and only, particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for hamlet tragic hero essay, learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Qub Thesis Only. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is a cover letter as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on qub thesis the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Medicine. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the only two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on mother to son one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the qub thesis only belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to essay mother to son by langston hughes open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded.
An important question is whether the format of qub thesis only assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in on why any change in the amount or type of qub thesis only preparation, or any difference in performance in help subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of qub thesis various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on as a intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. Only. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of and contrast no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the only relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to essay help make more use of surface learning strategies in qub thesis only preparation for MCQ and writing a cover address unknown, deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is qub thesis only simplistic, and much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on an essay not to multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the only student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to modification by hamlet as a tragic hero essay, other factors, particularly the qub thesis student’s own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the writing a cover letter address unknown intentions of the qub thesis examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to writing a cover address their perception of the qub thesis only requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to and contrast learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the only only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in as a tragic hero essay their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an qub thesis appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to writing a cover whether the assessment is qub thesis perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. Essay By Langston. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to only correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and writing unknown, Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to qub thesis only suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on about the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ].
In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in qub thesis predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is writing a cover letter address that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and qub thesis, Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in writing a cover unknown the workplace. Qub Thesis. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Writing A Cover Letter Address Unknown. Wilkinson and qub thesis, Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and research, short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in only the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to paper answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability.
Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of only any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the sports paper arguments… regarding the qub thesis only advantages of of a open-ended format, we have yet to qub thesis only see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to help conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the qub thesis only MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and an essay not to, the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the qub thesis candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions.
Schuwirth and as a tragic hero, Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of only SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in unknown any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the qub thesis answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the to son by langston hughes multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the qub thesis persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of factors.
Studies bear out the medicine research paper common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in qub thesis multiple-choice format—do not test the writing a cover letter unknown same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Qub Thesis Only. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is hamlet tragic hero essay that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by qub thesis, inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at mother to son hughes open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the only item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. Sports Research. It is qub thesis only therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the sports medicine research same order of cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by qub thesis, careful construction and medicine, thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. Qub Thesis. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in essay about to son by langston hughes the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on only actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the writing letter address existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the only teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding.
Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is an essay on why intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to only reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to and contrast assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the only observation that interleaved practice is on why not to more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of qub thesis skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is essay about mother much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the qub thesis only viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and to son hughes, reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of qub thesis assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the essay generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the qub thesis testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the sports medicine research act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and only, the post-assessment effect, such as the and contrast effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists. Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on qub thesis only the basis of their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of mother by langston hughes assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and qub thesis only, professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ].
Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of medicine research research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on only a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is the introduction as yet little written on qub thesis only the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the letter address theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Qub Thesis. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of essay help mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in only that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on essay about to son by langston hughes his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is only associated not just with an enlarging of store of knowledge and cheat, experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and only, accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of on why not to constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and only, illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Essay About Mother To Son By Langston Hughes. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is only postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of address information and the omission of qub thesis only intermediate steps in tragic essay reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the only expert’s knowledge is tragic hero essay grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. Only. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of sports research experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on only (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of writing unknown constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and qub thesis only, not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. Hamlet As A Tragic Hero. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is only indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is address unknown valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models. An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in qub thesis only a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at medicine paper accomplishing certain goals when the qub thesis only solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. And Contrast Essay Help. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to only include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the the introduction of a thesis class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the only information provided in the vignette, form an tragic hero essay accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is qub thesis that of the essay about mother hughes problem space, a mental representation of the qub thesis only problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the and contrast essay help relevant mental models and qub thesis only, is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of internal representation and letter unknown, mental model to qub thesis only the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ].
Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. The Introduction. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and qub thesis only, may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the essay help MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in qub thesis only fact assessing proficiency. Research. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of only a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it.
Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of writing the introduction of a thesis knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and qub thesis, excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the information when needed. This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and sports medicine, low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the qub thesis only cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to sports medicine the candidate without the qub thesis requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to hamlet as a essay generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is only explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is essay highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].
I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. Qub Thesis Only. By requiring the and contrast essay candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to only look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and research paper, not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and qub thesis, global assessment of paper a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning.
Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the qub thesis complex cognitive processes which precede the on why cheat selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to only high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. The literature on and contrast essay help problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by only, unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at medicine paper all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by only, definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity.
It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in writing a cover letter all probability require that the only candidate is afforded the as a essay opportunity to develop an only extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and writing address unknown, reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Concepts and only, relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is paper effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem.
Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to only extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the essay by langston concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the qub thesis only problem and essay, respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the only problem, identify, evaluate and writing of a, prioritise all the elements necessary for qub thesis, a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking.
The first column comprises the stages of mother learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to only complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the a cover likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in only a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Deep learning is an essay characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to qub thesis only everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the as a candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and qub thesis only, intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the information to essay be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the qub thesis only weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by writing letter address unknown, a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to only solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to tragic essay apply this knowledge in practice. Only. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and writing a cover unknown, tests of qub thesis only subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence.
Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in thesis another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in qub thesis some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of and contrast help assessment is redundant. Given the qub thesis only advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the sports paper cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the qub thesis only MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is essay to son hughes clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by qub thesis only, this form of assessment. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and writing of a thesis, assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Qub Thesis Only. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is as a tragic due in part to qub thesis the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of about mother cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to qub thesis only improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in sports paper reproducibility at qub thesis only the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the an essay on why cheat proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the qub thesis notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for writing a cover letter address unknown, learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in qub thesis only summative assessment at early and as a tragic essay, intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to qub thesis the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.
The author was solely responsible the hughes literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of qub thesis Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is research currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images. The author declares that he has no competing interests. Siemens G: Connectivism: Learning as Network-Creation. [ http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/networks.htm ] Siemens G: Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age.
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Air Pollution in only, Mexico City Essay Sample. General information about the problem: As the the introduction thesis, vehicle population reached more than 700 million, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution. Some of them reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to qub thesis be the most polluted cities in the world. Introduction of the problem: One of them is Mexico City. According to thesis Forbes, Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world. Industrial growth of the city, population boom, which grew from 3 million in 1950 to 20 million today, and the proliferation of vehicles in the city contributed to the Mexico City’s current air quality. Narrowing down the qub thesis only, problem: However, with the transportation proliferation contributing to about half of the city#8217;s total emissions, several solutions have to be considered in order to reduce the air pollution in the city. Thesis statement: The government should practice legal regulations and and contrast essay help favor the evolvement of environmentally friendly technology and fuel in order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City. II. Background.
A. Identify the problem/ show that the problem exists: People suffer from various diseases and the environment is being damaged (research). B. What caused the qub thesis, problem: Air pollution is mainly caused by a cover, vehicles. C. Qub Thesis. The effects of the problem: Air pollution can have serious consequences for the human health as well as severely damage the ecosystem. III. Solution 1. Topic sentence: One of the possible solutions is to continue to enforce legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The air pollution has been noticeably decreased due to legal regulations and governmental programs like PIICA, PROAIRE and PORAIRE III Describe your solution: Diminish taxis. • As taxis are diminished, less harmful gas emissions are produced Disadvantages: • Taxis are convenient. • Taxi driver as a job. Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to pass a law on telecommuting. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): Less gas emissions on telecommuting days (research) Describe your solution: Pass a law on writing, telecommuting. • Can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; • Is relatively inexpensive to implement; • Expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in qub thesis only, work and lifestyle. Disadvantages: • May incite legal issues between organization and employers • Lack of interaction with co-workers. • Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. Topic sentence: The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel.
Give grounds to sports medicine research the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The research indicates that usage of hydrogen fuel will definitely decrease the only, air pollution level. Describe your solution: Hydrogen should replace gasoline. Advantages: • Reduction in air pollution due to zero emissions. • Hydrogen is abundant (renewable source) • Hydrogen is expensive to produce. The Introduction Of A. • Hydrogen refueling stations construction require big amounts of money VI. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in only, the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to not to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in order to reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of qub thesis, gasoline. Essay Help. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City.
Air pollution in Mexico City. As the qub thesis, vehicle population reached more than 700 million worldwide, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution (Walsh, 1999). And Contrast Essay. The level of air pollution in any city is qub thesis a global concern. The reason is that air can travel freely from place to address place; consequently, the polluted air from one city can travel to another. The polluted air has numerous negative consequences for human health and qub thesis also severely damages the ecosystem. Some of the cities reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. One of as a tragic hero, them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, the only, Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world (Luck, 2008). The government and people have take measures in order to reduce the a cover unknown, air pollution in Mexico City before it is too late. Only. The government should practice legal regulations and sports favor the usage of hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline in order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City.
Mexico City is one of the world’s largest metropolitan areas, containing more than 20 million inhabitants, 3.5 million vehicles, and 35,000 industries (McKinley et al., 2005). More than 20% of Mexico’s entire population lives in its capital and more than 30 % of the country’s industrial output is produced here (Edgerton et al., n. d.). Although Mexico City is considered one of the world’s largest cities, it is still growing at a rate exceeding 3% annually. Moreover, the number of vehicles daily traveling on its streets makes up more than three million (Edgerton, et al., n. d). All the qub thesis, factors listed above contribute to hamlet essay Mexico City’s poor air quality. Mexico City is a perfect example of one of the qub thesis, burgeoning cities that experience severe air pollution. The ozone concentration in Mexico City is one of the highest in the world, being more than four times higher than the accepted norms. Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other harmful gases also exceed the Mexican health advisory level (Walsh, 1999). Nevertheless, comprehensive air quality management programs since 1990 have contributed to major reductions in and contrast, the concentrations of some pollutants such as lead, carbon monoxide and only sulfur dioxide (Molina Molina, n. d.).
Sulfur in diesel fuel has been reduced from 0.5% to 0.05%. Many old buses and trucks of Mexico City were replaced by newer ones powered by more modern and cleaner engines. In addition, unleaded fuel was introduced at writing of a, that time to make the vehicle emissions relatively cleaner (Edgerton et al, n. d.). Although the above measures contributed to a slight positive change in Mexico City’s air quality, serious air pollution problems still persist. Qub Thesis. The poor quality of air is the result of several factors: emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles and for industrial processes, energy production, high dust levels due to local constructions, population growth (Molina Molina, n. d.). Those human demands on the ecosystem are changing the landscape with important atmospheric consequences as well as causing threat to human health. People suffer from various diseases starting from insignificant ones like headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions to more serious ones like chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys (“How can air pollution hurt my health?”, n. d.). Although it is not possible to writing address unknown determine the qub thesis only, total impact of Mexico City’s poor air quality on public health, McKinley et al. (2005) calculated that only a 10% reduction of particulate matter in the air would save 3,000 lives and 10,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis each year, and that reduction of ozone would save 300 lives. As approximately 80% of particulate matter and essay nitrogen oxide, 45% of volatile organic compounds, and 30% of sulfur dioxide come from mobile sources, their emissions’ level should be reduced (McKinley et al., 2005). One of the possible solutions to reduce air pollution from vehicles is to continue enforcing legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention.
As mentioned above, Mexico City’s government has taken several measures and qub thesis only attempted various programs in order to research decrease the only, level of air pollution in the city. The first plan Programa Integral para el Control de la Contaminacio?n Atmosfe?rica (PICCA) was started in 1990 and had major attainments, including the introduction of two-way catalytic converters, the phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the establishment of writing the introduction thesis, vehicle emissions standards (McKinley et al., 2005). The second program, PROAIRE 1995-2000 (Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en el Valle de Me?xico Program to only Improve Air Quality in the Valley of Mexico) had other major accomplishments, such as the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline to essay mother by langston improve combustion efficiency, and carried out restrictions on the aromatic content of fuels and on qub thesis only, the sulfur content in industrial fuel (McKinley et al., 2005). These programs have had significant impact on not to, reduction of air pollution in the city. That is qub thesis why more of these kinds of a cover letter unknown, programs should be implemented in Mexico City, so the city can finally reduce the only, levels of not to cheat, air pollution to acceptable norms. For instance, the government should implement policies concerning taxis. According to only Connolly (1999), taxis and individual cars that replaced traditional buses are the most polluting of all forms of writing a cover letter, transport. Approximately 110,000 taxis “circulate the streets of Mexico City” (McKinley et al., 2005, p.1955).
Because of the large number of qub thesis, kilometers traveled each day by taxis, their emissions are quite high. Even though taxis account for only 3.4% of Mexico City’s vehicle fleet, the their emissions make 3.6% of essay by langston, particulate matter, 11.5% of sulfur dioxide, 10.7% of carbon monoxide, 10.2% of nitrogen oxide and 14% of volatile organic compounds of only, all transportation related emissions (McKinley et al., 2005). Thus, all the taxis around the city have to be diminished. Instead of taxis, the hamlet tragic essay, government should provide the residents with more buses and qub thesis only minibuses. The advantage of this policy is obvious: if there would be no taxis traveling in hamlet hero, the city, less harmful gases would be emitted. Moreover, the analysis made by McKinley et al. (2005) suggests that a turnover of the taxi fleet due to its size and age would benefit from over $70 million US in reduced health impacts from only, air pollution, and and contrast essay would also benefit from fuel savings, whose costs summed up together, is qub thesis greater than this measure’s investment cost.
However, there are several drawbacks to this solution. Firstly, taxis are very convenient for a cover letter people who do not have their own car to travel around more efficiently or to only travel to places, which locations are not known to you. For instance, taxis are very beneficial for the tourists who do not know the city. Moreover, most people earn money by working as a taxi driver and hamlet essay total ban of taxis would deprive them of their way of only, earning money. Therefore, most people might disagree with this policy and solution generally. Another possible solution is to pass the law on telecommuting. Telecommuting or telework basically means working from a place rather than traditional office environment, usually from home.
The distance traveled by a person is a significant factor in air pollution because less distance traveled, less undesirable gases are emitted. As telecommuters work from home, they tend to travel less often. The research indicates that on the telecommuting days, the distance traveled by research paper, vehicles is decreased by 76%. Consequently, there are fewer gas emissions; to be more precise, there is only a reduction by 64% of total organic gases, 63% of help, carbon monoxide and 73% of oxides of nitrogen (Sampath, Saxena Mokhtarian, 1991). Other advantages of telecommuting are that it can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; it is relatively inexpensive to implement; it expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in work and lifestyle (Sampath et al., 1991). However, some employers and employees would disagree with this solution because there are some disadvantages. Qub Thesis. Firstly, telecommuting may incite legal issues between organization and employers. Some of the issues they may face are workplace safety and compensation issues (Mills, Wong-Ellison, Werner Clay, 2001). The organization cannot guarantee employee’s safety because employee works out of the office.
And if any accident happened to the employee, the organization would not want to compensate employee’s medical expenses because the employee cannot prove that the accident occurred in the scope of employment. Secondly, lack of interaction with co-workers and isolation from society due to essay telecommuting, can have negative affects on individuals’ behavior and attitudes as well as can lead to negative consequences, like anxiety, depression, and even physical ailments (Gainey, Kelley Hill, 1999). Moreover, not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting and some employers dislike supervising employees they cannot see (Mills, et al., 2001). Nevertheless, telecommuting should be considered as one of the possible solution, because it is a perfect way to reduce vehicle traveling during the day, consequently reducing air pollution levels. Qub Thesis. The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. Sports Medicine Research Paper. The transportation sector is currently consuming gasoline and diesel at high rates.
More than half of the globally used oil is used for only transportation (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). The harmful emissions to the environment are due to its usage. Therefore, alternative fuels should be used more. Some types of alternative fuels are bioalcahol (methanol, ethanol), biodiesel and hydrogen. Kouroussis and writing a cover unknown Karimi (2006) compared the fuels listed above and came to conclusion that the only, use of hydrogen as a fuel would be the most beneficial one. To Son By Langston. A transition from only, fossil fuels to hydrogen would decrease the air pollution level because almost zero emissions occur, with water being the an essay, only by-product. In addition, hydrogen is the most abundant element on the Earth, so there should not be concerns about running out of its stocks. Moreover, car industries should produce more automobiles with a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.
Currently, BMW is the only, only one. BMW also made the automobile to be powered either by hydrogen or gasoline, as the availability of hydrogen refueling stations is help low (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). However, there are several disadvantages to this solution. Firstly, hydrogen made from only, electrolysis of water is writing the introduction thesis very expensive. At 25 °C, 65 watt-hours are needed to electrolyze one mole of water, which is 4.8kWh of electricity to generate one cubic meter of hydrogen. This electricity comes from the alternator which of course is powered by the engine, which uses energy (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). So, fuel economy is decreased by the same means you are trying to qub thesis only improve fuel economy. But there is an alternative way to an essay not to produce hydrogen, which is to split the water molecules through the use of wind or solar energy, what is less expensive (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). Another disadvantage is that the number of hydrogen refueling stations is very low. So, if individual runs out qub thesis of the gas, it will be difficult to a cover letter address unknown find a station to refuel the only, automobile immediately. To construct new hydrogen gas stations will require the government to allocate huge amounts of money.
Weinert (2006) estimated a hydrogen station construction to cost from $500,000 to over $5 million, depending on station size (30 kg/day 1,000 kg/day). This amount includes the capital costs, installation costs, feedstock costs and writing of a thesis fixed operating costs. Despite the disadvantages, producing and using hydrogen instead of gasoline holds the promise of pollution reduction in Mexico City. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to qub thesis its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well.
Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in to son by langston hughes, order to reduce the air pollution level. Only. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City. Connolly, P. (1999). Mexico City: our common future? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 53-78. The Introduction Of A Thesis. Edgerton, S.A., Arriaga, J.L., Archuleta, J., Bian, X., Bossert, J.E., Chow, J.C.,… Zhong, S. (n.d.).
Particulate air pollution in Mexico City. A Collaborative Research Project. Retrieved from only, http://www.narsto.org/sites/narsto.org/files/MexAWMA.pdf Gainey, T. W., Kelley, D. E. and writing the introduction of a Hill, J. Qub Thesis Only. A. (1999). Telecommuting#8217;s impact on corporate culture and individual workers: Examining the effect of employee isolation. Society for the Advancement of Management, 64(4). How can air pollution hurt my health? (n. d.). Retrieved from hamlet as a tragic hero essay, http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/pollution-health-effects-f.html Kouroussis, D. and Karimi, S. (2006). Alternative fuels in transportation. Bulletin of Science, Technology Society, 26(4), 346-355. Luck, T. M. (2008). The world#8217;s dirtiest cities.
Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/26/pollution-baku-oil-biz-logistics-cx_tl_0226dirtycities.html McKinley, G., Zuk, M., Hojer, M., Avalos, M., Gonzalez, I., Iniestra, R., … Martinez, J. (2005). Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environmental Science and technology, 39(7), 1954-1961. Mills, J. E., Wong-Ellison, C., Werner, W. and only Clay, J. M. (2001). Employer liability for telecommuting employees. Cornel Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,42, 48-59. Molina, M. J. and Molina, L.T. (n.d.). Improving air quality In megacities: Mexico City case study. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US.
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coursework inf Introduction to qub thesis only Identity Management. Restricted to as a students enrolled in the Master of only, Science in Identity Management and Security program. identity management, security, and privacy across different market sectors. Identity in Society Community. Restricted to essay students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program. Identity Public Policy. Restricted to students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program. identity policy areas including privacy, surveillance, identity theft, health information, business-to-business relationships, and the co-evolution of qub thesis, identity and information technologies. Identity Business Practices Governance. Restricted to research students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security.
Restricted to students in the Master of qub thesis only, Science in Identity Management and Security program. communications; communication and business continuity planning; time management; sense making processes in organizational crisis; and reputation management. Identity Risk and writing address, Benefit Analysis. Restricted to students in the Master of qub thesis only, Science in Identity Management and Security program. Special Topics in Identity Management Security.
Restricted to students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program. Restricted to students in the Master of sports medicine research, Science in Identity Management and Security program. Identity enrollment and authentication for cyber and physical access and transactions, cryptography, biometrics, device identity security, and security culture. Identity Information Management Repositories. Restricted to students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security. Restricted to students in only, the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program. information, and sports, multiple genres of legal information and only, legal writing. Legal requirements and cheat, social responsibilities as they pertain to only data protection and the prevention of different types of. Restricted to students in the Master of Science in Identity Management and Security program.
option. The equivalent of on why not to, three lecture hours a week for one semester. Offered on the credit/no credit basis only. Individual Studies - RESTRICTED (1 hour credit) In-depth study of a problem or topic related to information studies, usually culminating in an examination or a scholarly written report. With consent of the graduate advisor, may be repeated for credit. Creation of a website that displays the qub thesis student's professional aims, interests, and pursuits, including resume and tragic essay, work samples. Designed to be taken during the final semester of the Master of Science in Information Studies degree program. Internship in Libraries Other Information Agencies - RESTRICTED. Individual Studies - RESTRICTED (2 hours credit)
In-depth study of a problem or topic related to information studies, usually culminating in an examination or a scholarly written report. With consent of the qub thesis only graduate advisor, may be repeated for credit. Internship in Libraries Other Information Agencies - RESTRICTED. Academic Success in the Digital University. Exposure to a wide variety of information and academic resources, tools, and skills. Focus is on the digital landscape of higher education. Subjects include features of the primary learning management system used; communication and organizational tools; library resources; basic online research resources; and ethical and safety concerns. Introduction to Information Studies. Overview of the information field as it relates to the technology-based world culture. Topics may include the idea of information, information in relation to.
technology and culture, human-computer interaction, information technology in the introduction of a thesis, education, information literacy and the digital divide, information and communication technology, information and gender, public information policy, and information organization and preservation. Introduction to Information Studies (HCI/UX Emphasis) Overview of the information field as it relates to the technology-based world culture. Topics may include the idea of information, information in relation to. technology and culture, human-computer interaction, information technology in education, information literacy and the digital divide, information and communication technology, information and gender, public information policy, and information organization and preservation. Topics In Human-Computer Interaction. Fundamental concepts, techniques, and questions in human-computer interaction. Topics. covered may include user research, interaction design, user interface design, and usability.
Information and Culture. Examines information as a cultural phenomenon. Topics may include e-commerce, privacy and secrecy, censorship, information as a commodity, Internet culture, access to cultural heritage, and control of the cultural record. Evaluation, selection, and proper and creative use of only, books and on why not to, other media with children. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Studies 322T and 322W may not both be counted. Information and People. Study of how individuals and groups create meaning. Explores research topics concerning people and communication, including information literacy, organizations and innovation, knowledge management, and identifying information needs. A general introduction to information searching and evaluating information in digital, print, visual, and qub thesis only, aural formats. Information In Cyberspace (HCI/UX Emphasis)
An overview of the history and social impact of writing letter, Internet, Web, and other network technologies. Students will learn methods and tools of media creation with an emphasis on technological self-sufficiency. Information in Cyberspace. An overview of the history and social impact of Internet, Web, and qub thesis, other network technologies. Students will learn methods and tools of media creation with an emphasis on technological self-sufficiency.
Information Organization and Access. Basic aspects of representing and organizing information resources in digital information settings. Introduces the fundamentals of identifying informational objects, including description, content indication, and metadata. Advanced Topics In Human-Computer Interaction. Advanced concepts, techniques, and questions in human-computer interaction. Topics covered may include the design of rich interfaces, evaluation of tragic, interactive systems, and visual design. Design and use of qub thesis only, information technologies, including interface design, trends in information technology development, usability, information retrieval, immersive media, and information architecture. Information Studies 350E and 350W may not both be counted unless the topics vary. Technologies of the Book. Design and use of information technologies, including interface design, trends in information technology development, usability, information retrieval, immersive media, and sports medicine research, information architecture. Only? Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Information studies 350E and 350W may not both be counted unless the topics vary. Information in Society. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Projects In Human-Computer Interaction. Hands-on user experience design project. Students examine users' needs; complete an. interactive system design, evaluation, re-design; and/or similar tasks.
A multi-disciplinary and historical examination of information as a primary and foundational concept. Contrasts key literature from information studies with perspectives from other fields. Introduction to Internet concepts, protocols, applications, and qub thesis only, services. Examines the impact of policy and management decisions on current and future developments, and studies the design and implementation of Internet applications, including HTML, CSS, and related tools. Introduction to Programming. Introduction to problem solving and structured thinking, with an emphasis on design and implementation. Concepts and constructs underlying modern programming languages, such as data types, variables, operators, procedures, functions, classes, and objects.
Includes significant hands-on programming opportunities in designing Web, mobile, or desktop applications. Individual Studies - RESTRICTED (3 hours credit) In-depth study of a problem or topic related to information studies, usually culminating in an examination or a scholarly written report. With consent of the graduate advisor, may be repeated for credit. Advanced Problems in Information Studies - web-based - RESTRICTED.
Study of a problem or topic related to information studies. Understanding and Serving Users. Overview of human-computer interaction, understanding client groups, information filters, information literacy and information-seeking behavior, as well as user studies and usability testing. Introduction to Information Resources and Services. Major reference resources and strategies useful in providing information services in libraries and other information agencies. Materials for Children. A survey of children's literature; materials in about mother by langston, various formats suitable for use by and with children. Evaluation tools, application of selection and evaluation criteria, and planning for the use of materials.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Materials for Young Adults. Evaluation, selection and use of books and other media to meet the only needs of sports research paper, young adults of middle-school and high-school age. Information Resources and Services for Children and Young Adults. Examines the evaluation, selection, and use of books and other media for young adults of junior and senior high school age. Briefly surveys the reading experience, psychology of adolescence, and reading interests of young adults. Includes extensive reading and qub thesis, viewing. May be repeated for credit when the writing address unknown topics vary. Legal Information Resources.
Identification of relevant legal information resources, efficient retrieval of legal information, and the role of technology in legal information access. Information Resources in the Health Sciences. Evaluation of conventional and online health information resources used by consumers and health care professionals for health promotion and only, disease and disorder prevention, diagnosis, treatment, ad management. Includes traditional and alternative approaches, genetic clinical information approaches, and evidence-based approaches to essay the use of resources. Information Resources and Services. Evaluation and use of printed online information resources and services in specialized areas, with emphasis on new information technologies. Information-seeking behavior of users, document delivery, new roles of the information specialist in user support, and qub thesis, information needs of a variety of clients. Information Resources in Business. Communication patterns, bibliographic organization and information resources in business and essay, industry. Competitive Intelligence Resources and Strategies. Resources and strategies for market and competitive analysis.
Research and analysis of market trends and financial, technical, and cultural strengths and weaknesses of companies. Online, print, and qub thesis, primary research and analytical techniques. Ethics, process, and presentation are emphasized. Introduction to Scientific Data Informatics. Introduction to the characteristics of scientific data and the emerging practices applied. toward their management and preservation. Library Instruction and Information Literacy. History of instruction in information service settings; learning theory, including learning styles; professional organizations involved in supporting instruction; instructional delivery modes and materials; and evaluation. Information Services: Theory, Techniques, and Subject Areas.
Exploration of about to son, reference services; and evaluation and qub thesis only, use of printed and online information resources and services, with emphases on interpersonal communication and new information technologies. Information needs and information-seeking behavior or users; and new roles of the information specialist in user services. Includes information resources an services in the humanities and social sciences. Electronic Resources for Children and Youth Seminar. Exploration of digital information resources available for children and youth, including the range of content and availability, how information resources are conceived and created, and the implications of a cover unknown, these resources for school and public libraries. Visual Resources for Youth Seminar. The history and selection criteria of the Caldecott Award; the history of picture books and publishing; academic and professional literature about children's materials; and selection criteria for picture books, including evaluating children's literature and developing the tools to qub thesis analyze picture books for narrative, artistic, and writing the introduction of a thesis, compositional elements. Illustrative techniques and their effectiveness in relation to particular texts. Mathematical Foundations of Information Studies.
Introduction to traditional finite mathematical concepts, including probability distributions and models, linear equations, matrix algebra, linear statistical models, basic information theory, and the use of mathematical and statistical software for modeling and data analysis. Interpreting Implicit Information on the Web. Theories and methods of qub thesis, Internet language and image interpretation. Examines persuasion, group and individual identity projection, and essay help, group-value demonstration. Focuses on how discourse is shaped by ideology, social forces, and the knowledge and only, beliefs of its producers within several information contexts, such as online communities, education, science, and healthcare. Introduction to Digital Humanities. A hands-on introduction to guiding infrastructural and institutional developments involved in hamlet as a hero, digital scholarship. Areas of focus include archives, collection, and scholarly editions; data curation; funding; text encoding; tool building; scholarly publishing; and visualization. Library Information Science, Espionage, and Intelligence Gathering.
Examines the historical and conceptual linkages between the qub thesis only field of library information science and the practices of intelligence gathering and espionage. Explores the role and structure of the intelligence community, the sports medicine research similarities and contrasts between intelligence practitioners and qub thesis only, other information professionals, and historical case studies that illuminate areas of overlap and cooperation between the disciplines. Introduction to the concepts of information organization, representation, and classification. The Introduction Of A Thesis? Consideration of different traditions of practice and user concerns. Philosophical and social context, objectives and methodology of evaluating and selecting library materials. Seminar in Information Organization. Critical, in-depth examination of significant concepts in information organization.
Concepts of Information Retrieval. Foundations and emerging areas of research in information retrieval and filtering, including system evaluation, major underlying models in the field, empirical methods of only, document classification, and applications of data mining techniques (such as clustering and dimensionality reduction) for information management. Topics In Description and Metadata. Principles and practices for describing information resources. Introduction to issues in selecting, managing, and using digital repositories in diverse institutional settings. Covers repository models, collections, metadata, interoperability, preservation, policies, work flows, interfaces, visualization, applications, and services. Includes working with different repository software. Examines the impact of repositories on institutional culture, work practices, and not to cheat, publication models. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Descriptive Cataloging and Metadata. Descriptive Cataloging and Metadata. Qub Thesis? Standards, rules, and metadata formats for representing information entities in library catalogs and other bibliographic systems. Emphasis on the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and the MARC metadata format. Web-based instruction; no class meetings. Information Studies 384E and 384W may not both be counted. Human Computer Interaction. The history and importance of human-computer interaction (HCI), theories of HCI design, modeling of computer users and interfaces, empirical techniques for analyzing systems and interfaces, interface design, and styles of interaction.
Emphasis on reviewing research papers, current works, and future directions in HCI research. On Why Cheat? Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Architecture and Design. The theory and design of information architecture: models that provide structure and context for only information to shape meaning, purpose, and utility toward understanding. Students present theoretical reviews; map and about, design; and develop novel information architectures using a variety of qub thesis, methods and software applications. The Introduction Of A? Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Designed to build upon the skills covered in qub thesis, Information Studies 385P. Individual project evaluating a Web site or other software user interface. Students devise a plan for testing, secure IRB approval to test human subjects, conduct study, analyze date, write a report, and present the results and conclusions. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Digital Media Design. Design and production of hero, graphic, audio, video, and multimedia materials, with emphasis on aesthetics and usability.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Projects in qub thesis, Human-Computer Interaction. Projects based on theories of human-computer interaction design, modeling of computer users and interfaces, empirical techniques for analyzing systems and interfaces, interface design, and styles of interaction. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. History, design, and use of digital information networks.
Emphasis on origins of the Internet in the United States, varied technical models for networked information services, and social analysis of networked communication from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Includes close review of classic papers in networked communication as well as current works. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Principles and practices of database management and database design. Discussion and implementation of a database.
Application life cycle, data dictionaries, relational database design, SQL queries, reports and other interfaces to database data, and documentation. Students work on individual and group projects. Investigation of informatics movements around the world and in various disciplines and professions, such as biomedicine, nursing, public health, education, business, law, and public affairs. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. The basics of user-centered design through the lifecycle of a software product. Includes perceptual, psychological, and other scientific underpinnings of usability and the justification for the application of usability engineering in about by langston hughes, software development. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Knowledge Management Systems. Survey of knowledge management systems that enable the qub thesis access and research, coordination of qub thesis, knowledge management systems that enable the access and coordination of knowledge assets, including intranets, groupware, Weblogs, instant messaging, content management systems, and e-mail in both individual and organizational contexts. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Survey of Digitization. Introduction to writing the issues and trends in digitization initiatives and management, including project planning and management, asset delivery and management systems, interoperability and the importance of standards, copyright and other legal issues, metadata basics digital preservation, and specific digitization processes for documents, images, video, and sound. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Research, development, and evaluation issues in digital libraries, including collection development and digitization; provision of access to multimedia materials; access strategies and interfaces; metadata and interoperability; and the implications of digital libraries with respect to policy and social issues. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Special Topics in Information Science. Study of the properties and behavior of information. Technology for information processing and management. Visual, numerical, textual, and qub thesis only, verbal presentation of information based on fundamental theories of human information perception and communication. Essay To Son Hughes? Examples may include tables, graphs, dashboards, infographics, and reports.
Concepts, principles, strategies, techniques, and tools for the visual presentation of large, high-density, or complex information resources from a variety of disciplines such as the sciences, humanities, law, arts, and business. Human Computation Crowdsourcing. Introduction to the theory, methods, and applications of qub thesis, human computation and crowdsourcing; covering a breadth of key concepts as well as more specialized depth in one or more key sub-areas. Mobile Interaction Design. Introduction to the design of mobile interactions with emphasis on research and analysis, conceptual design, mobile interface prototyping, and the basics of interface evaluation and usability testing. A hands-on introductory overview of the applications, methods, tools, and technologies that constitute data science and data mining. Fundamentals of Python and R programming languages and relevant libraries. Writing Thesis? A semester project applying the learned methods and technologies to a specific dataset. An introduction to fundamental information modeling methods such as relational database design, conceptual modeling, markup systems, and ontologies. Information Science in the Intelligence Community.
Introduction to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) and the world of espionage from a Library and Information Science perspective: how intelligence agencies collect, manage, and analyze data and information to produce actionable insights for policymakers. Digital Media Collections. Collection design, resource selection, description and organization, development of user access mechanisms. May include collection considerations in regards to only various media, workflow and project management, audience analysis, and notions of essay help, authorship in the collection context. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Studies 385T (Topic: Creating and Using Digital Media Collections) and 385U may not both be counted. Introduction to health informatics; includes fundamentals of information in biomedicine, nursing, public health, bioinformatics and genomics, electronic records, and qub thesis, integrated systems.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Explores information, computer, and network security in writing a cover address, several contexts. Qub Thesis? Examines business impacts of security, societal implications of the writing a cover unknown protection of information resources, and technical aspects of securing information technology systems and data. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. History of Information and Society. Topics on qub thesis only, the histories of information; libraries; archives; information science, technology, and businesses; conservation; and museums. Archives, Records, and Preservation in writing the introduction, the Modern World. Progress of archival enterprise, records management, and preservation administration from the Renaissance to the present. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information and Culture. Examines information as a cultural phenomenon; may include e-commerce, privacy and secrecy, censorship, information as a commodity, Internet culture, access to cultural heritage, and control of the cultural record.
Gender, Technology, and Information. Definitions of and metaphors for technologies; in-depth analysis of feminism and science and technologies studies, masculinities and technologies, woman's underrepresentation in technology, reproductive and sexual technologies, domestic technologies, design and architecture, book clubs and qub thesis, reading, and gender and (information) articulation work. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Only one of the following may be counted: Graduate School 390J (Topic: Gender, Technology, and Information), Information Studies 386G, Women's and Gender Studies 393 (Topic: Gender, Technology, and Information). Theory and Methods of Oral History. Theories of oral history; practical methods for producing, recording, annotating, and searching oral and video histories; archival issues related to documentation of oral histories; use of oral histories in various scholarly fields.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Theory and practice in the design, behavior, evaluation, and administration of libraries and other information agencies and systems. Marketing of information organizations and writing a cover address unknown, resources. Administrative applications of technology. Managing Information Organizations. Management theory, concepts, processes, and practices as applied to information agencies and systems. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Information Studies 387C and 387W may not both be counted. Evaluating Information Programs. Use of evaluation in support of decision making, setting priorities, allocating scarce resources, and improving programs. Students study how to conceptualize, design, implement, and qub thesis only, report on evaluation in the context of working with a local client. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Marketing of information agencies, systems, services, publications, and writing thesis, software and hardware products to consumer clientele. Qub Thesis? Includes marketing research, planning, user studies, product development, communication, pricing and distribution for profit and nonprofit organizations. Study of the information brokerage function. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Technology and Work. Examines the an essay on why cheat role information technology plays in modern work.
Case studies of historical and modern examples of technology implementation and only, work transformation. Includes qualitative techniques, such as interviewing and observing, for data collection; data analysis; and and contrast essay help, presentation of only, data. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. School Library Management. Philosophy, objectives, and management of the school library; emphasis on facilities, staff resources, administrative procedures, and programs and services. Three lecture hours a week for writing a cover address one semester.
Information Studies 388C and 388W may not both be counted. Planning and Management of Programs for Children and Young Adults. Designing and planning effective services and programs for qub thesis children and young adults: technologies, information need analysis, and trends. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Historical Museums: Context and Practice. The process of exhibit creation in help, historical museums, from planning through development to only opening and maintenance, as a negotiation among stakeholders for influence on the story that is told. Students visit local historical museums and examine how presentations are influenced by the introduction the institutional position of the museum, including its history and resources; the concerns of museum employees; the influence of the audience and of those who are directly affected or represented by an exhibit; and the role of contractual professionals. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Mission, goals, and objectives of qub thesis only, specific information settings. History, missions, values, governance, funding, services, user communities, architecture, leadership, and issues in public librarianship.
The relationship of academic library management to trends in postsecondary education, to the institution the library serves, and to the research community at large. Development and management of special libraries and essay about by langston, information centers. Rare Book and Special Collections. Administration of rare book and qub thesis, manuscript collections. Introduction to analytical bibliography. Overview of law librarianship, the discipline of law, and to son, the culture of the legal environment, including the context in which law librarians, legal publishers, and other legal information professionals work. Professional Experience and Project. Study of a practical problem, current phenomenon, or professional issue in an institutional setting. Students prepare a final project intended for publication. Practicum in qub thesis only, School Libraries.
Fieldwork in varied school library settings under the supervision of. Internship in Libraries and Other Information Agencies - RESTRICTED. Archival and Records Enterprise. Theory and practice of archival administration and records management. Problems in acquiring, organizing, and providing for use of writing the introduction thesis, archives and office records; issues in deterioration and care of paper, books, photographic material, magnetic records, and other media through preservation programs for qub thesis libraries and archives. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. May be repeated for credit. Introduction to Records Management. Systems for controlling recorded information in an organizational setting. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Introduction to Electronic and Digital Records.
Examines personal recordkeeping and information management to explore the creation, management, and preservation of a cover address unknown, digital information. Includes current developments in digital technology that affect recordkeeping. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Appraisal and Selection of Records. Investigates the history, theory, and practice of selecting and appraising records information for permanent or quasi-permanent retention in an archival environment. Qub Thesis Only? Explores influences of other stakeholders on the selection and appraising process. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Life Cycle Metadata for Digital Objects. Constructing the metadata continuum in order to writing understand how metadata may function as an authenticating wrapper for an electronic record. Analysis of the elements of the continuum, including records surveys and inventories, creation metadata, active management metadata, records schedules, accession records, cataloging and description metadata, maintenance records, and usage records. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Introduction to Issues in Records Information. Exploration of the fundamentals of records information and their role in qub thesis only, society. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Seminar in Archival Enterprise. Theory and practice of archival administration and records management.
Problems in an essay cheat, acquiring, organizing, preserving, and providing for only use of administrative and collected archives. Introduction to Archival Enterprise I. Introduction to the records aspect of archival enterprise, from acquisition to use, with emphasis on arrangement and description. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. INF 389D and INF 389R may not both be counted. Introduction to writing of a Archival Enterprise II. Administrative and professional issues, including organizing the work of a repository, management issues, marketing, space, law, and only, ethics. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Information Studies 389D and 389S may not both be counted. Copyright: Legal and Cultural Perspectives. Digital and writing the introduction of a, other important communication technologies; how copyright in the U.S. developed and has evolved; and copyright seen from a number of disciplinary points of view, such as legal studies, cultural history, and public policy.
Other subjects may include the culural commons; natural rights arguments for copyright versus social bargain and statutory arguments; identifying and protecting th epublic interest in information; the law of copyright and cultural categories such as the author, the work, intellectual property, and creation; and important federal court cases. Three lecture hours a week for only one semester. Help? Information Studies 390C and 390N (Topic: Copyright: Legal and Cultural Perspectives) may not both be counted. Critical examination of conflicts and trends in information policy in private organizations and in federal, state, and international public-sector organizations. Federal Information Policy. Exploration of major information-policy conflicts around topics such as privacy, surveillance, and only, freedom of information; in-depth analysis of the implications of digital technologies in the post-9/11 United States. Designed to help students develop skill in policy analysis as a research method and familiarity with many kinds of sources of information about federal information policy. Seminar in Information Policy. Analysis of an essay not to cheat, issues and trends in information policy in qub thesis only, various environments.
Topics in Privacy. Policy, value systems, and critical theory regarding privacy, studied from historical, sociological, feminist, or other perspectives. Doctoral Inquiry in Information Studies. Topics in the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of information studies. Directed Readings - RESTRICTED. The individual student works under supervision of an essay on why not to, a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Directed Research - RESTRICTED. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the Graduate Coordinator for only registration.
Introduction to Doctoral Research and Theory I - RESTRICTED. Foundations of inquiry in about, the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, and review of theories and methods of inquiry in Information Studies in particular. Introduction to Doctoral Research and Theory II - RESTRICTED. Epistemological concepts and processes of theory generation and only, testing in Information Studies, with special attention to explicit problems of interest to the student. Survey of Information Studies - RESTRICTED. An overview of the major ideas, concepts, and about by langston, theories of Information Studies. The Research Enterprise - RESTRICTED. An overview of the nature and purposes of research, and only, common methods and methodologies in information studies. Disciplinary Foundations For Information Studies - RESTRICTED.
An overview of concepts, results, and perspectives from philosophical, social science, humanistic, design, and technological disciplines that provide important underpinnings for Information Studies. Advanced Topics in Information Studies - RESTRICTED. Advanced study of specific topics in Information Studies. Intended primarily for doctoral students in the School of Information. Advanced Topics in Research Methods, Methodologies, and Design. The equivalent of essay about mother to son by langston hughes, three lecture hours a week for one semester.
May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Doctoral Writing Seminar. Intensive writing, critique, and rewriting to assist senior doctoral students with refining their research writing in preparation for qualifying papers, dissertation proposals, and formal publications. Preservation Administration and Services. Theory and practice of qub thesis only, preservation administration and services. Problems in planning, organizing, and implementing preservation work in libraries, archives, and museums.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. May be repeated for credit. Fundamental issues and problem solving in the preservation of cultural heritage collections in libraries and archives. And Contrast Help? Topics include the development and ethics of preservation and conservation, types and causes of deterioration, preventive care and stabilization, monitoring and controlling interior environments, reformatting, and performing preservation-needs assessments. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Materials in Libraries, Archives, and qub thesis only, Museums. Underlying factors in the physical nature of materials; concepts of permanence, durability, and deterioration; challenges of both traditional and modern collections; emphasis on print and writing letter unknown, photographic collections. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Risk Assessment and Collections Management. Agents of deterioration, including physical forces, security, disaster, and environmental conditions; risk assessment, strategies to reduce risk, and only, personal safety. Sports Research? Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Management of Preservation Programs. Management of specific preservation strategies for cultural record; preservation policy; the selection process for preservation; minor mending and only, repair operations; library binding and conservation treatment; preservation assessments; emergency preparedness; contracting for services; and budgeting, grant writing, and fundraising for preservation. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Creating Sustainable Digital Collections. Hands-on activities that focus on sports research paper, building sustainable collections of digitized resources.
Designed to help students gain curatorial understanding of the media to be digitized and knowledge of and experience with the technical and qub thesis only, managerial aspects of the digitization process. Includes creation of metadata and digital preservation strategies for and contrast essay long-term access. Qub Thesis? Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Digital Archiving and Preservation. Examines the permanent archiving of digital information.
Covers media refreshment, emulation, migration, and electronic records repository construction and help, administration. Case study projects involving campus repositories and off-campus institutions. Qub Thesis? Students use legacy hardware and software and digital forensics tools to preprocess digital collections for repository storage. Also explores issues in long-term electronic records preservation. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Introduction to Audio Preservation and Reformatting. Study of unknown, audio recording through a chronological examination of the development of recording; basic care and preservation of recordings; economics of audio preservation; and qub thesis, stability concerns of modern media.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Advanced Audio Preservation and Reformatting. Exploration of writing a cover letter unknown, changing concepts in the nature of audio information in different formats, issues of access within the qub thesis only context of preservation, criteria for prioritization of materials to be reformatted, considerations in invasive versus minimal restoration, and as a tragic hero essay, study of qub thesis, rare formats. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. The Politics of Preservation. Introduction to the components of the media industries, using the available literature as well as the University's film and video resources. The course employs both a theoretical and a practical approach to the archival media product.
Debate over defining historical media material as artifact complements discussion of the realities of digitization and physical deterioration. Conservation Laboratory Techniques. Analysis, housing, and treatment of physical objects. Conservation Science I. Introduction to physical and chemical properties of materials used in fabrication, identification and repair of books, photographs, manuscripts and related objects. Conservation Science II. Advanced exploration of the physical and essay to son hughes, chemical properties of materials used in fabrication; and identification and repair of books, photographs, manuscripts, and qub thesis only, related objects. Includes a research investigation of a typical conservation problem. Treatment Techniques for Flat Paper. Basic techniques for care and as a, handling of paper materials including but not limited to mending; dry cleaning; humidification and flattening; exhibit design and installation; enclosures; documentation. Treatment Techniques for Bound Materials.
Basic techniques for care and handling of qub thesis, bound materials including but not limited to sewing structure, minor mends, and essay, enclosures. Research in only, Information Studies. Methods and subjects of research in information studies. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary. Bibliography and Methods in Historical Research.
Sources of information for, and techniques of conducting, investigations in history. Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Practicum in Research - RESTRICTED. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Three lecture hours a week for writing the introduction of a one semester. Offered on the credit/no credit basis only. Digital Libraries Research. Exploration of qub thesis, theoretical and practical research on creating digital collections and making them available. Three lecture hours a week for one semester.
Seeking Funding for Information Studies. Designed to help students gain an writing, understanding of, and hands-on experience with, the pursuit of only, funding for information studies. Students will spend some time considering their five-year plan, will investigate a wide variety of thesis, possible funding sources, and then submit at least one grant or contract application. Survey of the qub thesis goals, methods, processes, and products of systematic inquiry. Designed to prepare students to critically evaluate information studies research.
Three lecture hours a week for one semester. Bibliography and Methods in Historical Research. Sources of information for and techniques of conducting investigations in history. Master's Report - RESTRICTED. Preparation of a report to fulfill the cheat requirement for the master's degree under the report option. Supervised Teaching in Information Studies - RESTRICTED. History and present status of education for librarianship and information studies.
Curriculum design, systematic course design and management, teaching methodologies and evaluation of learning. May be repeated for credit as a teaching practicum. Research for the dissertation. Qub Thesis? The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Students must present the help faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. Writing of the dissertation. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty. Qub Thesis Only? Students must present the faculty member's name to the graduate coordinator for registration. The individual student works under supervision of a member of the graduate faculty.
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