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Byron Wien: I Spoke To The Smartest Man In Europe, And What He Had To Say Was Terrifying. Blackstone's Byron Wien is up with a new blog post, wherein he relays a conversation he had with someone he only a level english help, refers to as The Smartest Man In Europe . Wien doesn't say who The Smartest Man In Europe is, but describes him as basically an incredibly brilliant, wordly, rich businessman. Many of you remember The Smartest Man from earlier essays; I have been writing about him annually for more than a decade. He has been a friend for thirty years, and letters, during that period he has shown an almost uncanny ability to see major events affecting the financial markets before other observers. Among these were the fall of Japan as an economic power in the 1980s, the a level coursework help economic changes in China and their significance the early 1990s, and nguyen oedipus, the serious consequences of excessive borrowing in the developed world in a level help the last decade.. His DNA endowed him with a certain amount of peter nguyen essay business acumen. His ancestors operated canteens along the Silk Road, selling food, weather protection and supplies to travelers to India and China. A Level! He apprenticed in finance in New York, but returned to Europe to take advantage of opportunities created during the post-war recovery there. Along the way he has acquired the ABC€™s of list in research European wealth €“ an english, airplane, a Bentley and a house on a Cap in the French Riviera. The depth and breadth of his art collection is impressive, but material things are not what gives him a high. Jack! He gets his thrills from identifying a problem, thinking it through and a level help, being right in determining how it gets resolved.

In his ninth decade, he is an inspiration to me. So what does TSMIE see now? Basically that massive amounts of debt will bring the what is a good way to decline of Western Civilization, but that in the meantime, before that happens, policy makers would pull every trick they could in order to stave off a catastrophic event. He started out by saying he had done some preparation for our visit. €œI think the title of english help your essay should be €˜Dancing around the Fire of Hell.€™ For years I€™ve been telling you that the accumulation of debt was going to be the ending of the developed world and for years you have been telling me my views are too extreme. The problem is you are an optimist and I am a realist. You go around with a smile on your face thinking that there are serious problems facing us, but that everything will turn out favorably because the policy makers will do what they have to do to avoid disaster, and so far you have been right. The developed economies and their stock markets have plodded along and investors haven€™t made or lost much money in spite of the list challenges. At a certain point, however, the temporary measures that the policy makers put in place to avoid financial catastrophe prove insufficient and that€™s where we are now.

I€™m not saying that it will happen tomorrow but events are falling into place that will take the smile off your face. After getting to the point where fiscal stimulus no long works, the help world's central banks will go into peter nguyen essay overdrive (as is already happening) €œBefore we experience widespread defaults the authorities will pull out every trick in the book to prevent catastrophe. A Level English Help! That€™s because there is a general belief that the European Union was a good idea. Peter! In order to compete against the United States and a level coursework help, Asia, the European countries had to for administrative, hang together. It was as much a geopolitical decision as an economic one.

There needs to be more cooperation among the European leaders. The first step is to create a coordinated banking system to a level english coursework, prevent a run on itds coursework the banks. Deposit insurance won€™t do the a level english help job. It€™s too much to jack ripper coursework 5, expect the various governments to agree to a political union at a level help this time, but there could be a banking union to prevent the European banking system from collapsing.. €œThe next step will be for every central bank in the world to peter essay oedipus, keep printing money. Ultimately this will bring on a higher level of inflation, but I think the world is ready to a level english help, accept that.

World leaders will agree that growth should be their objective and inflation will be the price they will have to pay for it. This may result in awesome cover letters some instability among currencies. Before this happens there will have to be more suffering. Spain and a level, Greece will default. There won€™t be outright financial disaster because by the time the what is a good way to your thesis defaults take place the a level help banks will have sold most of the essay troubled sovereign debt on their balance sheets to the European Central Bank. France€™s deficit will get worse as Hollande implements some of the programs he talked about in his campaign.

Human beings and governments have an unlimited imagination and they will use it to delay the day of reckoning. In the longer term the crisis may turn out to be a good thing because the pain of what we are about to go through will prevent it from ever happening again. €œSo what am I doing with my money? It is coursework, hard to hide in creative writing stocks. Even Danone is reporting disappointing earnings; people are so worried they aren€™t even buying yogurt. The French auto companies are in trouble.

I think gold is going much higher. I am buying energy stocks because I want to own something real. English Help! Preserving capital is my focus now, not making money, but I like IBM and Apple. Jack Ripper Coursework 5! Also some Swiss multi-nationals. If Obama wins in November the market will go down. A Romney victory will create a rally, but once he gets into office he will find there is not much he can do to make things better.€. I left The Smartest Man€™s office somewhat dazed. Coursework! My optimism was clearly diminished by what he had to say, but I still believe that somehow disaster has a way of usually not happening. It seems clear that world leaders are going to do everything possible to avert a financial catastrophe and I think they have the resources to accomplish that goal. It does seem, however, that the peter nguyen essay oedipus developed world has to resign itself to a prolonged period of slow growth.

For what it's worth, the story doesn't sound that different from english, a lot of the Austrian fairy tales about itds program, printing and a level coursework, hyperinflation, but still, it's a well-written read. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Byron Wien: I Spoke To The Smartest Man In Europe, And What He Had To Say Was Terrifying. Debt will lead to a collapse. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.

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La grande distribution en Russie Perspectives pour les groupes etrangers. Professeur permanent, groupe ESC Dijon Bourgogne. A Level English Coursework Help? Manuscrit clos en septembre 2007. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Le Courrier des pays de l'Est. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue.

Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Way To Formulate Thesis Statement? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Avec une croissance moyenne de 6,4 % entre 2002 et 2006 [1] [1] Le PIB russe a atteint 984,6 milliards de dollars en. English Help? et d’importantes perspectives de developpement, la Russie est devenue l’une des destinations preferees des groupes de la grande distribution en quete de nouveaux espaces. What Is A Good Way To Your Thesis? En hausse de 19 % en 2005, le chiffre d’affaires du commerce de detail connait une progression trois fois plus rapide que celle du PIB, et represente plus d’un quart de ce dernier [2] [2] Le chiffre d’affaires du commerce de detail en Russie. English Coursework Help? . Ripper 5? Le secteur alimentaire qui pese 100 milliards de dollars et s’accroit de 15 % par an, est le plus dynamique, mais le non alimentaire commence egalement a apparaitre sur les ecrans radar [3] [3] A. English Coursework? Ostrovsky, B. Awesome Cover Letters For Administrative? Benoit, « Metro Unveils ˆ1bn Plan. Coursework Help? . What Is A Good Statement? Au-dela de l’effet produit par ces bonnes performances, les previsions de certains « agents d’influence » occidentaux sont encourageantes : ainsi, en 2003, la banque d’investissement Goldman Sachs, dans un rapport sur les BRIC (Bresil, Russie, Inde, Chine), situait la Russie a la cinquieme place mondiale en termes de PIB d’ici 2030.

De meme, le pays arrive dans les tout premiers rangs en ce qui concerne l’indice d’attractivite du marche pour la grande distribution internationale, etabli chaque annee depuis 2003 par le cabinet de conseil AT Kearney [4] [4] La Russie a conserve sa deuxieme place en 2006. English? . La Russie sovietique ignorait le concept de grande distribution moderne. What Is A Good Formulate Thesis? L’offre, quand elle existait, etait mal distribuee et les conditions d’achat ressemblaient a un parcours du combattant. A Level English? L’appareil de distribution actuel est un melange entre heritage sovietique et nouvelle Russie : outre les grandes surfaces sovietiques de qualite variable, tel les univermags et universams des quartiers residentiels, on oedipus, trouve les Goums et Tsoums des centres-villes [5] [5] Dans le systeme sovietique, les univermags (acronyme. Coursework? . Creative Writing? Les anciens petits magasins de proximite, privatises, continuent leur activite sous les enseignes d’antan, tel Produits alimentaires ( Prodoukti ), qui representent toujours plus d’un tiers du nombre total d’etablissements commerciaux. Viennent ensuite les successeurs des marches kolkhoziens sovietiques, qui permettaient aux paysans d’ecouler une partie de leur production privee, avec environ un quart des parts de marche. English Coursework Help? Bien que mieux reglemente aujourd’hui, ce mode de distribution est toujours assez « sauvage » et repose sur une myriade de kiosques et de points de vente en plein air.

Au final, la distribution moderne occupe entre 10 % et 13 % du marche (les estimations varient), position nettement minoritaire. List Of Tables Paper? Avant la crise financiere de 1998, cette part etait encore moindre, et c’est de cette annee-la que date l’entree definitive de la grande distribution dans le paysage commercial russe. English Help? La devaluation du rouble et l’arret des importations ont rendu en effet la production domestique plus competitive, l’essor de la grande distribution etant alors apparu dans le sillage de ce renouveau. Itds Coursework Program? Le plus grand producteur de boissons, Wimm-Bill-Dann, donne de cette evolution une excellente illustration. English? Fonde en 1992, le groupe ? qui disposait d’une seule chaine de production dans une usine moscovite et commercialisait une seule marque ? n’avait pas les moyens de concurrencer l’offre beaucoup plus allechante des multinationales. Of Tables? Depuis la crise, la firme a acquis plus d’une douzaine de chaines de production et d’emballage et propose 450 types de produits differents. La plupart des analyses concordent sur le potentiel considerable de la distribution en Russie, estime au moins au double du l’existant.

Ces evaluations se fondent sur la hausse du pouvoir d’achat des menages. English Help? Ce dernier a beneficie de la fin de la periode de non-paiement des remunerations, de relevements successifs du salaire minimum, du retour de la croissance, ainsi que, indirectement, d’une meilleure redistribution de la manne energetique. Selon une etude realisee par la branche moscovite de la Deutsche Bank, les depenses du Russe moyen dans le commerce s’elevaient en 2001 a 1 007 dollars, ce chiffre devant tripler d’ici a 2010. En termes absolus, la consommation russe est en train de rattraper celle des pays d’Europe centrale et orientale. Globalement, le chiffre d’affaires du commerce de detail russe est passe de 199 milliards de dollars en 2004 a 250 milliards en 2005. In Research? Les estimations sont de l’ordre de 400 milliards de dollars d’ici a 2010 [6] [6] AT Kearney, 2005 Global Retail Development Index ;. English? . What Way To Your Thesis Statement? Avec un salaire moyen d’environ 300 dollars (2005) et le developpement d’une classe moyenne [7] [7] Le groupe Metro evalue la classe moyenne a 20 % de. A Level English? , des sommes considerables vont etre consacrees a la consommation. Awesome Letters Assistant? La Russie est deja le cinquieme marche pour l’alimentation en Europe. English? Les Russes atteignent ce niveau de consommation relativement eleve pour diverses raisons : meme si les salaires restent inferieurs a ceux verses en Occident, une plus grande partie est disponible, en raison des bas niveaux des taux d’imposition et d’epargne, de la modestie des depenses pour le logement et l’energie, et enfin du relevement des salaires minima, sans oublier l’importance de l’economie parallele. Se basant sur l’augmentation des depots en banques et des abonnements de telephonie mobile, une etude realisee en 2003 chiffrait a 45 % la part de l’economie « grise », et a 40 % la sous-evaluation du PIB par les statistiques officielles [8] [8] « Top 100 Emerging Companies of the creative writing for teenagers Russian Consumer. Coursework? . Jack Ripper Coursework 5? Finalement, un nouveau comportement d’achat s’impose a mesure que s’estompe le souvenir des annees 1990, lorsque les salaires etaient couramment verses avec retard (ou pas du tout).

Dans le meme temps, le panier moyen commence a se modifier, avec une diminution de la part relative des produits alimentaires au profit des meubles, des biens electromenagers, des voitures ainsi que des loisirs [9] [9] La part des depenses alimentaires dans le budget moyen. English Coursework? . L’extension des facilites de paiement et du credit a la consommation contribue egalement a cette evolution ; entre 2004 et 2005, ce dernier a double, atteignant 41 milliards de dollars. Le secteur de la grande distribution en Russie se distingue par le nombre des acteurs locaux, contrairement par exemple a la Pologne ou les grandes enseignes occidentales se sont partage le marche, ne laissant aux entreprises locales qu’une place marginale. L’histoire de Pyaterochka, maxidiscounter devenu numero un dans l’alimentation, est caracteristique a cet egard. Awesome Cover Letters For Administrative Assistant? Disposant de deux entrepots en gros a Saint-Petersbourg, il avait deja 17 supermarches en 1999, au lendemain de la crise financiere. Help? Apres que la Berd eut pris une participation dans son capital, le mouvement s’est accelere et il a realise un chiffre d’affaires de 1,6 milliard de dollars en 2004 [10] [10] 2005 GRDI. Coursework Question? . Cette expansion rapide s’est faite grace au systeme de la franchise, puis le groupe s’est consolide avec l’acquisition de petits operateurs regionaux et des implantations dans les autres pays de la CEI. A Level? En 2006, a l’heure de sa fusion avec Perekrestok (carrefour en russe), premiere chaine de supermarches du pays (detenue par Alfa Group, de Mikhail Fridman), le groupe comptait environ 1000 magasins, pour la plupart a Moscou et a Saint-Petersbourg. Awesome Cover For Administrative? Ce nouvel acteur, appele X5 Retail Group, ambitionne de doubler son chiffre d’affaires (2,4 milliards de dollars en 2005) a moyen terme, et concurrence directement Auchan et Metro.

La chaine de supermarches Sedmoi Kontinent (Septieme Continent ) , fondee au debut du processus de privatisation, en 1994, a connu un developpement tout aussi etonnant. A Level English Coursework? Ainsi, son chiffre d’affaires est passe de 100 a 300 millions de dollars entre 2000 et 2002. What Your Thesis? En 2003, elle a inaugure son premier hypermarche, Mosmart, et envisage d’en ouvrir a Moscou de 30 a 35 a court terme et meme 70 a long terme. A Level Help? Elle gere aujourd’hui 67 magasins dans la capitale, et detient une part de marche de 15 %. Creative Writing? Le dynamisme du marche russe se traduit egalement par le developpement des enseignes specialisees. D’autres elements revelateurs du dynamisme des enseignes russes resident dans les mouvements de consolidation recents, avec les fusions de discounters et de super- ou hypermarches, ainsi que de groupes moscovites et petersbourgeois. A Level Coursework Help? Outre la fusion de Pyaterochka (auquel appartient deja l’hypermarche Karoussel) et de Perekrestok, a eu lieu celle du discounter petersbourgeois Dixi avec la chaine d’hypermarches moscovites Megamart. In Research Paper? Dans une meme logique d’extension, des magasins Pyaterochka et Paterson ont ete ouverts en Ukraine et au Kazakhstan. Coursework Help? Plusieurs groupes ont lance des OPA, dont Sedmoi Kontinent, Dixi, Magnit, Lenta.

L’entree en scene des groupes etrangers. Meme si les motivations d’une installation a l’etranger peuvent varier, une majorite de groupes etrangers cherche avant tout a echapper a la saturation des marches occidentaux ou ils assurent deja l’essentiel de l’activite commerciale. Oedipus? La comparaison du niveau de penetration dans plusieurs pays en donne une bonne illustration. Pour autant, la Russie n’est pas un nouvel Eldorado. A Level? Une demarche qui se contente de reagir sans anticiper a peu de chances de l’emporter sur un marche au contexte tres particulier en matiere de competition. Les premiers groupes etrangers a s’aventurer sur le marche russe ont ete le turco-russe Ramenka, avec ses hypermarches Ramstore, en 1997 et la chaine suedoise IKEA, en 2000. What Thesis? Ces investissements vont produire aussitot des effets boule de neige, se manifestant par l’arrivee de nouveaux modes de distribution.

Comme pour leurs equivalents russes, la sante retrouvee de la production nationale et la viabilite de multinationales comme Danone ou Nestle, rassureront les etrangers. Coursework? Le premier Cash and jack coursework, carry est introduit par le groupe allemand Metro en 2001. Ce dernier est bientot suivi par son compatriote REWE, avec son reseau autrichien de supermarches Billa, puis par Spar, avec ses superettes et surfaces un peu plus grandes. Coursework? Le premier hypermarche russe, cree par le pionnier francais du format, Auchan, ouvrira la meme annee. Itds Coursework? La derniere vague d’implantations compte la chaine specialisee britannique Marks Spencer. Celle-ci se lance en 2005 avec deux franchises a Moscou, et y ajoutera sept autres sites en 2006 ? dont deux a Saint-Petersbourg, un a Nijni-Novgorod et un encore a Ekaterinbourg. A Level English Coursework Help? Face a des taxes a l’importation elevees et a une sensibilite aux prix grandissante de la part du consommateur, le sourcing local s’impose pour tous les groupes etrangers. What Formulate Your Thesis Statement? Ainsi l’approvisionnement de Ramstore est russe a 85%.

Pourtant, constituer un reseau de fournisseurs locaux, element critique de toute internationalisation d’enseigne, est un defi particulier en Russie. A Level? En effet, la strategie en matiere d’offre suppose de proposer plusieurs categories de produits pour satisfaire une clientele la plus large possible, avec d’un cote des articles a prix casses pour le consommateur moyen, et de l’autre des biens importes pour le consommateur plus exigeant. Moscou demeure le lieu de predilection des groupes etrangers. List Of Tables Paper? Avec une population de 14 millions d’habitants, et un segment important de la nouvelle classe moyenne (15 a 20 % de la population), dont le niveau de salaires est plus eleve qu’ailleurs, la ville a de quoi seduire, puisque 30 % du commerce de detail y est realise (48 milliards de dollars en 2003) [11] [11] Le chiffre correspondant pour Paris est d’environ 80. A Level English Coursework Help? . Etant donne la specificite des grandes agglomerations russes, dont la majorite des habitants vivent dans des zones-dortoirs situees a la peripherie, toute implantation doit cibler un lieu de passage oblige, comme les points de liaison metro-bus, ou un quartier a forte densite de population. Of Tables In Research Paper? AMoscou, le boulevard peripherique (MKAD) est tres prise. A Level English Coursework? Trois zones commerciales extra muros , mais a proximite de quartiers tres peuples, ont accueilli la plupart des enseignes etrangeres, comme les centres commerciaux MEGA a Teply Stan, Khimki et Belaia Datcha, au sud-ouest, nord-ouest et sud-est de la capitale. Itds Coursework Program? D’un point de vue strategique, les plus grands groupes installes dans ces lieux sont les deux fondateurs ?IKEAet Auchan ?ainsi que la chaine specialisee allemande OBI, le finlandais Stockmann et le russe M. English Coursework? Video. Ripper Coursework Question 5? S’y ajoutent environ 200 petites boutiques, appartenant a diverses enseignes specialisees etrangeres et russes tels Polo, Adidas, Yves Rocher, l’Etoual, Marks Spencer, Douglas, SportMaster.

Cher et sature, le centre-ville de Moscou ne se prete pas a l’accueil des grandes surfaces et est devenu la chasse gardee des magasins de luxe. A Level English? Le seul grand projet au c?ur de la ville est le nouveau centre commercial Atrium Kourskaia, lequel a accueilli des enseignes prestigieuses de plus petite taille, ainsi qu’un supermarche Sedmoi Kontinent. De leur cote, les regions cherchent a s’affirmer face a la capitale pour attirer les investisseurs, Saint-Petersbourg notamment s’y employant depuis de nombreuses annees. Question 5? Plus que la flambee des prix de l’immobilier et les risques de saturation du marche, c’est le manque de terrains qui detourne les investisseurs des rives de la Moskova. Anticipant les futures contraintes et pour assurer son developpement dans la capitale, Auchan a signe, fin 2006, un accord de partenariat avec le groupe immobilier Tsentourion, dans lequel une deputee de la Douma detient la majorite de controle. A Level Coursework Help? Deja a Moscou, la demande pour des espaces de stockage correctement equipes serait superieure de 40 % a l’offre. Peter Oedipus? S’ajoute a ces difficultes le decret du maire de la capitale, Iouri Loujkov, qui interdit aux magasins situes au-dela du boulevard peripherique, sur le territoire des communes limitrophes, de posseder des panneaux publicitaires intra muros . A Level Coursework? En consequence, les dix autres villes russes de plus d’un million d’habitants, qui se trouvent pour la plupart dans l’ouest du pays, sont la cible des prospecteurs. Une envolee de la grande distribution dans les regions, sur le modele de ce qui s’est produit a Moscou, est tout a fait envisageable, a condition toutefois que la croissance russe poursuive sa trajectoire actuelle. Peter Essay? Il n’y a donc rien d’etonnant a ce que le groupe francais Carrefour ait decide de lancer fin 2007 sa premiere implantation en Russie ? un magasin de 10 000 m? ? sur les rives du Don, a Rostov. A Level? L’exemple de Marks Spencers, avec son systeme de franchise, se situe dans la meme logique.

Les derniers arrives realisent qu’il leur faut desormais eviter la capitale, ou la concurrence est devenue trop forte [12] [12] Une application directe du concept de « l’avantage. Awesome Cover For Administrative? . A Level English Coursework? Carrefour en est bien conscient. Peter Essay? Pionnier en Russie, ou il avait un projet des la fin des annees 1990, il s’est retire apres la crise financiere de 1998, laissant le champ libre a Auchan, son principal rival a l’international, qui saura en profiter. English? Carrefour tente maintenant de revenir sur le marche russe, et vise une dizaine de grandes agglomerations regionales ou, face a une forte demande, les leaders des marches moscovite et petersbourgeois n’assurent qu’une presence discrete, quand ils ne sont pas completement absents. Creative Competitions? Les hypermarches ne s’adressent pas en effet a la petite elite qui se rend frequemment dans les deux capitales, mais a la classe moyenne qui est plutot sedentaire (contrairement a l’epoque sovietique ou, en raison des tres grandes disparites d’approvisionnement et du tres faible cout des transports, les Sovietiques n’hesitaient pas a venir de tres loin pour faire leurs courses a Moscou). English Coursework? Le fait que le sentiment de fidelite a la marque soit peu developpe en Russie ne peut que renforcer les chances de tout nouvel arrivant dans les regions. L’experience de ce groupe offre des enseignements instructifs. Itds Coursework? Quand il installe son premier magasin moscovite en 2000, les attentes concernant le comportement d’achat de la clientele ne se verifient pas : au lieu de s’interesser aux accessoires et petits objets, la demande s’est immediatement portee sur des categories de produits plutot inattendues, comme les cuisines. English Coursework Help? Pour IKEA, le marche russe a surtout surpris. Creative Writing Competitions? par son absence de surprise et son acceptation sans reserve de la standardisation, qu’il s’agisse des produits, ou de l’agencement des magasins [13] [13] L’experience d’IKEA est atypique, sinon l’adaptation. Coursework? . Un autre objectif d’IKEA etait d’implanter un centre de production dans un pays low cost . Awesome Letters For Administrative? Des droits de douane de 25 % sur les meubles importes rendent necessaire de recourir au sourcing a hauteur de 30 %, pour rentabiliser l’operation. English Coursework? Le groupe souhaite donc utiliser les capacites de production du pays pour approvisionner son reseau mondial de magasins.

Avec une demande globale pour les produits IKEA, qui double tous les quatre ans, la securisation de l’approvisionnement represente un enjeu majeur. Creative Writing For Teenagers? Dans ces conditions, un partenariat s’impose avec la Russie, qui detient un quart des reserves mondiales en bois, mais possede egalement des potentialites importantes s’agissant des matieres plastiques et de l’aluminium ; son interet va aussi a la reactivation des capacites dormantes des industries textile et de la ceramique. English Coursework Help? D’apres Lennard Dahlgren, dirigeant d’IKEA en Russie, la qualite de la production locale y serait tres superieure a celle d’autres pays, contrairement a ce que l’on a coutume d’entendre. Ripper Coursework Question? Le sourcing local d’IKEA s’est chiffre a 50 millions de dollars en 2002. A Level Coursework? Pour permettre aux fournisseurs russes d’acheter l’equipement industriel necessaire, le groupe a depense 400 millions de dollars. Letters Assistant? De plus, il a ouvert sa propre unite de production a Saint-Petersbourg. A Level English? La lourdeur des frais d’etablissement peut expliquer que le groupe soit reste deficitaire jusqu’en 2005, bien que ses magasins russes soient parmi les dix les plus visites au monde et que les ventes aient depasse les previsions [14] [14] Le leader parmi les magasins IKEA en Russie a attire. Awesome Letters Assistant? . Une autre implantation reussie est celle du groupe allemand Metro qui, ayant adopte une strategie d’internationalisation pour echapper a l’atonie du marche allemand, a pris pied en Russie en 2000, et a ouvert un Cash and a level, carry en novembre 2001. Ripper Coursework 5? Ce calcul consistant a compenser la mauvaise conjoncture allemande par de nouveaux marches etrangers s’avera judicieux, puisque ces derniers representent desormais plus de la moitie du chiffre d’affaires du groupe, avec en tete l’Asie et l’Europe de l’Est [15] [15] Au troisieme trimestre de 2006, les hausses ont ete. A Level Help? . Coursework Program? La Russie, ou les ventes ont progresse de 75 % en 2004 et de 66 % en 2005 (depassant 1,5 milliard de dollars au cours de cette annee), compte pour beaucoup dans cette performance. A Level English Help? Apres avoir rode son concept Cash and list paper, carry, Metro a lance ses hypermarches « Real » en 2005, puis, un an a level help, plus tard, sa troisieme enseigne, Media Markt, qui fut la premiere chaine etrangere d’electronique a s’etablir dans le pays.

Metro propose deux marques de distributeur ?Aro et Metro Quality ?ainsi que les plus grandes marques russes. Essay? Comme la plupart des autres distributeurs etrangers, le groupe se procure l’essentiel de ce qu’il vend en Russie, soit 140 000 produits differents, venant de 2 000 fournisseurs russes. A Level Coursework? Tout comme IKEA, le groupe compte utiliser la Russie comme centre d’approvisionnement de son reseau international de magasins. What Way To Thesis? Le fait de cultiver l’image de « l’entreprise citoyenne » ( Good corporate citizen ) et de renforcer les liens entre les parties prenantes contribue non seulement au developpement du groupe, mais rend plus aisee l’acceptation de cette entreprise etrangere. Metro evite les oligarques, mais soigne ses relations avec un pouvoir relativement perenne, en l’occurrence la mairie de Moscou. A Level English Coursework? L’appui de cette derniere fut decisif pour l’implantation de tous les magasins du groupe qui, sur ce plan, fait presque figure d’exception parmi les operateurs etrangers [16] [16] Les trois IKEA desservant la ville sont tous situes. Awesome Cover Letters For Administrative? . English Coursework? Pour souder les liens, Metro communique sur ses actions de bienfaisance et relevant de sa responsabilite sociale : en coordination avec la mairie, il a mis a la disposition des orphelinats et d’autres institutions sociales moscovites, nourriture, vetements et moyens de chauffage pendant l’hiver 2005-2006.

La cooperation avec la mairie porte aussi sur un projet commun de production biologique de viande, qui sera expediee dans les Cash and letters for administrative, carry europeens. Metro fait souvent valoir le nombre d’emplois crees, surtout dans les regions, ainsi que son module de formation Metro Education dont beneficie un millier de jeunes cadres russes par an. De leur cote, les fournisseurs de Metro voient leurs produits beneficier d’une plus grande notoriete grace a la certification internationale demandee et obtenue par le groupe. A Level Coursework? Ce dernier cherche manifestement a s’implanter durablement en Russie et est engage dans des projets de consolidation de son reseau dans la partie europeenne du pays, ainsi qu’en Siberie, notamment a Novosibirsk et Omsk. Itds? Selon son PDG Hans-Joachim Koerber, la Russie devrait se placer a breve echeance parmi les cinq premieres implantations du groupe dans le monde, tant en ce qui concerne les ventes que le nombre de magasins a l’etranger [17] [17] « METRO Group Further Expanding Strong Position in. A Level English? . Auchan a fait son entree sur le marche russe en 2001. Coursework Question 5? Pour rester competitif, il a du adopter, des le debut, une strategie discount , les prix des fruits et legumes devant se situer au meme niveau que ceux des Cash and coursework help, carry et des marches en plein air, principale reference du consommateur russe. Awesome Cover Letters? Pour attirer ses clients, Auchan s’est inspire pour ses magasins des marches, ou le consommateur peut, tout en se promenant, faire ses courses. Help? En ce qui concerne son ancrage dans le tissu economique et social du pays, il procede de facon assez similaire a IKEA et Metro. Cover Letters For Administrative Assistant? Sa recette est le fruit de son experience en Pologne, ou le groupe ne se contentait pas de sa propre implantation, mais essayait de devenir le maitre des lieux, valorisant des terrains avec la construction de galeries marchandes autour de l’hypermarche, qui accueillent petits et grands commerces.

En Russie, Auchan renouvellera ce concept, cette fois en cooperation avec IKEA dans le cadre des Megas Malls, cooperation qui a permis de parer une tentative d’extorsion de pots-de-vin, a l’occasion du lancement du deuxieme centre commercial moscovite, en 2004. A Level Coursework Help? Auchan est plutot proche du gouverneur de la region de Moscou, Boris Gromov, avec lequel il a deja renouvele son accord de developpement de 2001. List In Research? Cependant, il ne veut pas abandonner le centre-ville, comme en temoigne son partenariat avec le groupe immobilier Tsentourion. La concurrence dans le segment des hypermarches ?cense etre particulierement porteur ?est rude et Auchan a vite ete copie par plusieurs chaines russes et etrangeres, dont Sedmoi Kontinent, Spar, Metro (« Real »), O’KEI et plusieurs autres. A Level Coursework Help? Le positionnement de Mosmart, l’enseigne hyper de Sedmoi Kontinent, est illustre par son slogan sans equivoque : « Un kopek moins cher qu’a Auchan ». What Is A Way To Formulate? La valeur ajoutee d’Auchan n’est pas exclusive d’une autre. A Level English Coursework? Avec une offre de 80 % de produits locaux, la copie est assez simple a realiser, et meme en etant moins competitifs, les groupes russes ont des chances de gagner la bataille, du fait de leur meilleure connaissance du jeu politique.

Toutefois, la question-cle est celle de la compatibilite a long terme du concept « d’hyper » avec le marche russe [18] [18] Ace sujet, voir Graham Roberts, « Auchan’s Entry into. Question 5? . English Help? Le succes de cette formule repose sur trois piliers : des surfaces importantes ou sont proposes produits alimentaires et non alimentaires, des prix bas et des parkings. List Of Tables? Et c’est la que les premiers problemes apparaissent : maintenir des prix bas depend de la structure de la chaine logistique et la situation en Russie est telle que les fournisseurs peuvent dicter leurs conditions. A Level English Coursework Help? En 2001, les groupes russes avaient reagi en concluant une alliance destinee a combattre le pouvoir dont jouissaient leurs partenaires, sous la houlette de Sedmoi Kontinent et de Perekrestok. Oedipus? IKEA a certes choisi de creer sa propre chaine d’approvisionnement, mais les moyens d’action des hypermarches occidentaux semblent relativement modestes. A Level English Help? Par ailleurs, faire ses achats dans un hypermarche signifie disposer d’une voiture, ce qui n’est pas encore le cas general en Russie. In Research? Les quantites achetees restent donc limitees a ce que peuvent contenir des sacs portes a la main. Coursework Help? La visite le week-end a l’hypermarche est ainsi reduite a de la curiosite, ce que revele une affluence superieure, mais un chiffre d’affaires inferieur a ceux d’un hypermarche francais. Ripper? Le developpement de chaines couvrant tout le territoire fait face a un defi culturel, qui tient a la variation, selon les regions, du niveau de sensibilite aux prix et des preferences du consommateur. English? De fait, les prix pratiques connaissent des ecarts considerables, de meme que les comportements de la clientele. Il est difficile de savoir si le succes actuel des hypermarches en Russie est ou non un effet de mode passager.

En tout cas pour l’instant, les formes traditionnelles de distribution ont la vie dure. En general, les Russes sont persuades que seuls les marches en plein air peuvent offrir une combinaison optimale entre qualite et prix. Awesome Assistant? De plus, les comportements de consommation herites de l’URSS perdurent, les Russes preferant les achats journaliers en petites quantites dans les commerces de proximite aux courses importantes et hebdomadaires en peripherie. Help? La chaine russe Mosmart a beau predire l’implantation a long terme dans la region de Moscou de 70 hypermarches, un taux de penetration de meme ordre que celui observe dans l’Union europeenne est peu probable en Russie, en raison de la corruption ainsi que d’une application asymetrique des regles du jeu, qui favorise les acteurs russes. For Teenagers? Les chances des groupes etrangers de participer a cet essor ne doivent donc pas etre surestimees. Coursework Help? Comme pour enfoncer le clou, le bureau d’etudes Planetretail juge le developpement d’Auchan trop lent. Peter Nguyen? Le retrait partiel du turc Ramenka, qui a du fermer dix de ses Ramstores (sur un total de 60), donne egalement a reflechir. Quels sont les ressorts de la reussite des trois exemples decrits ci-dessus et quels peuvent etre les axes du developpement futur des enseignes commerciales etrangeres en Russie ? Comme sur tous les marches emergents, la profitabilite en Russie s’inscrit dans une perspective de long terme. A Level Help? Ainsi, Auchan n’espere pas faire de benefices avant plusieurs annees et IKEA a depasse le « point mort » en 2005 seulement. Peter Essay? Dans ce contexte, les societes non cotees sont avantagees par rapport aux societes cotees soumises a la pression des actionnaires. A Level English Coursework? En consequence, elles ont toute latitude pour reagir aux fenetres d’opportunite qui s’offrent a elles pendant cinq a dix ans.

La penetration d’un marche tel que la Russie exige egalement une main-d’?uvre de qualite. Essay Oedipus? Or, meme si le pays compte chaque annee environ 1 million de diplomes et a deux fois plus d’etudiants inscrits dans le superieur que la Chine [19] [19] 7 millions contre 3 millions pour la Chine. English Coursework Help? , grosso modo le systeme d’education est toujours fonde sur l’acquisition de connaissances plutot que sur le developpement de competences. Jack Ripper Question? Si les jeunes recrues russes d’IKEA ont un bon niveau d’instruction, elles se montrent peu capables de mettre leurs acquis en pratique. A Level English Coursework Help? Le systeme educatif produit un grand nombre de juristes et d’economistes, mais peu de managers et ?en opposition flagrante avec la tradition sovietique ? peu d’ingenieurs. En meme temps, les groupes doivent adapter leurs politiques de fidelisation et de remuneration, car la concurrence entre eux au sein de ce petit pool de professionnels qualifies est rude. Competitions? Cette gestion du personnel renvoie a un troisieme element essentiel : les trajectoires d’apprentissage d’un groupe etranger, son knowledge management (management des competences) et son knowledge sharing (echange des competences). Au lieu de se baser sur des etudes de marche ou des informations abstraites, IKEAa mise sur l’acquisition active de connaissances et de competences : ainsi, la politique de recrutement et des ressources humaines, ainsi que les relations avec les fournisseurs et decideurs politiques sont primordiaux dans ce processus d’apprentissage. Help? La fluidite des relations releve de la culture de l’entreprise, c’est-a-dire du degre de hierarchisation, des caracteristiques du management, de l’attitude face au risque, de la transmission des valeurs, de la presence d’outils permettant l’echange, de « l’ouverture » de l’entreprise aux employes, clients et partenaires. Quelle peut etre la valeur ajoutee des groupes etrangers ? Premierement en implantant des complexes qui englobent grande distribution, petits commerces et lieux de divertissement. Awesome Assistant? C’est le cas des Mega Malls qui associent IKEAet Auchan.

Reprenant l’idee de l’« achatplaisir », le premier Mega moscovite basait sa campagne publicitaire sur le slogan « Faire des achats en Europe ? sans visa, sans voyage », qui revele une bonne connaissance du referentiel culturel russe. A Level English Coursework Help? Deuxiemement, les groupes etrangers sont competitifs dans le discount (surtout le hard discount ), en raison de leurs economies d’echelle et de la qualite de leur logistique et de leurs fournisseurs europeens (ou mondiaux). Letters For Administrative? Malheureusement, pour l’instant, ce potentiel n’est pas encore valorisable, mais l’adhesion de la Russie a l’Organisation mondiale du commerce pourrait modifier la donne. Manifestement les creneaux representes par les hypermarches, les maxidiscounts (mais aussi les enseignes specialisees) sont les plus porteurs. English Coursework? L’essor de certains types de distribution correspond aux differentes phases que connait le marche. List Of Tables In Research? La Russie est, en effet, en train de passer du stade de marche croissant a celui de marche culminant (et bientot en declin), ou certains formats de vente commencent a avoir davantage de succes et d’autres moins. A Level? Pendant cette phase, on list of tables, observe generalement une redistribution des cartes, le nombre de supermarches diminuant essentiellement au profit des hypermarches et des discounters, tandis que disparaissent des formats traditionnels comme les marches en plein air, les kiosques et les petites epiceries. Simultanement, un marche en declin s’illustre par la resurrection des petits formats, mais cette fois au sein de chaines. A Level English Coursework? En Russie le mouvement est deja engage. What Is A Good Statement? Neanmoins, la recomposition se fait assez unilateralement au benefice des discounters, secteur entierement domine par les groupes russes. Mais ceci pourrait changer si les leaders allemands du hard discount europeen, Lidl et Aldi, decidaient de s’implanter dans le pays.

La grande distribution specialisee est le troisieme point fort des groupes etrangers. A Level English Coursework? Pour l’instant, les investissements dans ce secteur ont peu d’envergure, surtout en comparaison avec ceux effectues dans d’autres pays emergents, comme la Chine ou le Bresil. Peter Oedipus? La plupart des enseignes occidentales preferent toujours passer par un distributeur local ou avoir recours a la franchise, comme en temoigne le cas d’Yves Rocher, present sur le marche depuis 1990 [20] [20] La firme est actuellement en train de revoir sa strategie. A Level English Coursework? . Letters? Dans le secteur pharmaceutique, par exemple, il n’y a encore aucun distributeur etranger [21] [21] La plus grande enseigne britannique, Boots the english coursework Chemist. Creative Writing Competitions? . A Level English Help? Meme si le commerce alimentaire represente environ 40 % du chiffre d’affaires de la distribution de detail, la situation est en train de se modifier, avec l’augmentation de la part du revenu affectee par les menages a d’autres consommations. Le succes de la strategie de joueur de niche adoptee par IKEA, mais aussi l’envolee rapide de Marks Spencer montrent qu’il existe une place pour ceux capables de repondre a une demande non satisfaite par la concurrence russe. Creative Competitions For Teenagers? C’est dans des domaines autres que le commerce alimentaire, que le succes des chaines internationales s’affirme. A Level Coursework Help? C’est notamment le cas pour les secteurs de l’electronique et des objets pour la maison et le bricolage, dont l’expansion correspond a l’evolution du comportement de consommation.

Si le mouvement des introductions en bourse de societes russes se poursuit, le developpement pourrait aussi passer par la voie des acquisitions. Assistant? Dixon, leader britannique de la distribution de produits electroniques, a sans doute ete precurseur en la matiere, en signant un accord de cooperation avec le Russe Eldorado, qui s’accompagne d’une option d’achat, valable jusqu’en en 2011. Tout au long de cet article, on a level english coursework, a pu constater que le boom russe de la grande distribution n’est pas un de ces exercices en trompe-l’?il dont la Russie a la reputation. List Of Tables In Research? En meme temps, force est de reconnaitre que les enseignes commerciales etrangeres sont moins a meme de faire valoir leurs avantages competitifs que les entreprises industrielles qui generalement peuvent s’appuyer sur une cooperation interetatique. English Coursework Help? La Russie d’aujourd’hui eprouve un besoin urgent de biens industriels ?equipements mecaniques, lignes de production, usines cle en main ?, afin de renouveler sa production et d’ameliorer ses infrastructures de transport. List In Research Paper? Mieux vaut alors un produit unique et inimitable, qualite que la majorite des biens de consommation ne possedent pas. English? Neanmoins, l’implantation en Russie complete parfaitement les portefeuilles des groupes de la grande distribution internationale, et. Le PIB russe a atteint 984,6 milliards de dollars en 2006, Country Briefings « Russia » , The Economist Intelligence Unit. Le chiffre d’affaires du commerce de detail en Russie s’est eleve a 180 milliards de dollars en 2005, alors que le PIB etait de 764,2 milliards de dollars, voir AT Kearney, The 2006 Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) ; The Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Briefings « Russia » . A. For Administrative Assistant? Ostrovsky, B. Coursework Help? Benoit, « Metro Unveils ˆ1bn Plan to competitions for teenagers, Capitalise on english help, Growth in awesome cover for administrative assistant, Russia », Financial Times , 11 juin 2003. La Russie a conserve sa deuxieme place en 2006. Dans le systeme sovietique, les univermags (acronyme pour magasin universel), grandes surfaces ou etaient vendus principalement des biens non alimentaires, etaient situes dans les villes.

Les universams (acronyme pour magasin universel en libre-service) qui proposaient en libre-service des produits alimentaires et non alimentaires, se trouvaient dans les zones residentielles. English Help? Les Goums (magasin universel d’Etat), dont celui, bien connu, de Moscou, aujourd’hui privatise, et les Tsoums (magasin universel central) relevaient de la premiere categorie dont ils etaient les fleurons et etaient installes dans le centre des grandes villes. AT Kearney, 2005 Global Retail Development Index ; Consulat general de France a Saint-Petersbourg, Mission economique, La grande distribution a Saint-Petersbourg , 18 juillet 2006. Le groupe Metro evalue la classe moyenne a 20 % de la population totale. « Top 100 Emerging Companies of the jack ripper Russian Consumer Market », Interactive Research Group , Moscou. La part des depenses alimentaires dans le budget moyen aurait baisse de 54 % a 39 % entre 1998 et 2004. Le chiffre correspondant pour Paris est d’environ 80 milliards d’euros. Une application directe du concept de « l’avantage au premier entrant ». L’experience d’IKEA est atypique, sinon l’adaptation s’impose, sous la forme d’une revalorisation de la « russite », avec des touches contemporaines. Le leader parmi les magasins IKEA en Russie a attire 40 millions de visiteurs en 2004. Au troisieme trimestre de 2006, les hausses ont ete de 15,5 % en Europe de l’Est et meme de 17,9 % dans la zone Asie-Afrique.

Les trois IKEA desservant la ville sont tous situes dans la region de Moscou. English Coursework? Auchan a seulement quatre de ses dix enseignes moscovites sur le territoire de la ville meme. « METRO Group Further Expanding Strong Position in jack coursework 5, Russia », 24 aout 2006. Ace sujet, voir Graham Roberts, « Auchan’s Entry into english coursework, Russia : Prospects and competitions for teenagers, Research Implications », International Journal of a level english coursework, Retail and peter, Distribution Management, 33(1), 2005. 7 millions contre 3 millions pour la Chine. La firme est actuellement en train de revoir sa strategie, en envisageant des acquisitions en Russie et en Chine. La plus grande enseigne britannique, Boots the a level Chemist, se preparerait a entrer sur le marche russe. La Russie qui connait une croissance forte depuis plusieurs annees et voit le niveau de vie de sa population s’ameliorer rapidement presente pour la grande distribution un potentiel prometteur. Good Way To Your Thesis? Cette derniere, apparue dans le paysage commercial seulement apres la crise financiere de 1998, se developpe d’ailleurs tres rapidement : de 199 milliards de dollars en 2004, le chiffre d’affaires du commerce de detail est passe a 250 milliards en 2005 et pourrait atteindre 400 milliards vers 2010. A Level Coursework Help? Contrairement a ce qui s’observe dans les PECO, les acteurs locaux sont tres presents en Russie et, a la suite de mouvements de concentration successifs, dominent largement le marche.

Les groupes etrangers, arrives de fraiche date, s’installent majoritairement a Moscou ou est realise 30 % du commerce de detail et certains, comme IKEAet Auchan, sont a l’origine de gigantesques centres commerciaux, les Mega Malls, a la peripherie de la capitale. Peter Nguyen Oedipus? Mais le manque de terrains, la flambee des prix de l’immobilier et le risque de saturation du marche les incitent de plus en plus a envisager des implantations en province. Coursework? Par ailleurs, ces groupes etrangers cherchent le plus possible a se fournir aupres de producteurs russes, y compris, comme le fait IKEA, pour approvisionner son reseau mondial de magasins. Awesome Cover For Administrative Assistant? L’etude de ce cas, ainsi que de ceux de Metro et d’Auchan permet de preciser les strategies adoptees par les grandes enseignes occidentales en Russie, qui ont pour principal atout, face a la concurrence russe, quelques acquis inimitables comme, notamment, la pratique du hard discount, l’experience de la creation et de la gestion de grands complexes commerciaux, les competences en matiere de chaines specialisees et de marches de niche. Large-Scale Retailing in a level coursework, Russia The Outlook for peter nguyen essay Foreign Groups Russia, which has enjoyed strong growth for a level several years and coursework, has seen the english coursework standard of coursework, living of english coursework, its population rapidly improving, shows great potential for writing competitions for teenagers large-scale retailing and a level, distribution.

The latter, which made its first appearance on writing competitions for teenagers, the commercial scene only a level coursework after the what is a way to 1998 financial crisis, is a level english, also developing rapidly ; from competitions 199 billion dollars in english help, 2004, retail sales passed to peter oedipus, 250 billion in a level help, 2005 and writing, could reach 400 billion around 2010. English Coursework Help? Unlike conditions prevailing in jack question, the Central and coursework help, Eastern European countries, local agents are very present in jack ripper coursework, Russia and a level, as a result of for administrative assistant, successive consolidations largely dominate the a level help market. Peter Essay Oedipus? Foreign groups, only english recently arrived, are located mainly in peter essay oedipus, Moscow, which accounts for coursework 30 % of cover, retail trade, and a level english, some, such as IKEAand Auchan have created gigantic shopping malls, Mega Malls, on question, the outskirts of the english help capital. Itds Coursework Program? A lack of a level english, space, soaring real estate prices and creative writing competitions for teenagers, the risks of english help, market saturation are encouraging more and cover for administrative, more to help, consider setting up in itds, the provinces. English Coursework? These foreign groups also seek to what good way to your, rely on english coursework help, Russian suppliers as much as possible, as does IKEA for ripper question 5 its worldwide chain of a level coursework help, stores. Of Tables Paper? This case study, as well as those of a level english, Metro and in research paper, Auchan, reveals the english coursework strategies adopted by jack ripper question large Western groups in english coursework help, Russia, where their main advantages in question 5, confronting Russian competition are some inimitable factors such as, in a level help, particular, hard discounts, experience in cover, setting up and a level english, managing large commercial centers, as well as expertise in list in research paper, specialized chains and a level help, niche markets.

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They must continuously upgrade themselves in business knowledge and english coursework technical aspects to improve the business process effectively and efficiently. 5890, 52, Some Drive, Email:(Include Email Address) I have excellent written and oral communication skill in English and as a business analyst with over 6 years of list of tables in research paper, professional experience, I use my skill to communicate directly with the client and gather details of requirement. I have wide knowledge and experience in reengineering concepts and tools. I make use of my experience to reengineer the process and improve it to make the business effective and efficient. I am well versed in converting the requirements into effective business design. Having knowledge and experience in a level english coursework, software companies I use my knowledge in the process of detailed system design. To take a challenging role on business operations as Business Analyst and list paper give an efficient and effective solution that will help the organization to achieve the best solution in business and ultimately increase its productivity in market. • Master of Business Administration, Finance, Wales University, 1999. A Level English Coursework? • Bachelor of Science in Business Management, Stake University, 1997. Microsoft Office tools namely Access, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint and Word, Lotus Notes, SAP related to writing competitions Business Warehouse, OOD Visual Basic, UML, and good knowledge on a level coursework Business Objects.

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Business Analyst (March 2003-July 2005) Took part in awesome letters, the preparation of Project plan, user acceptance testing. Got a detailed understanding of business functionality and a level english coursework help took the responsibility of preparing the list paper Functionality Test Plan which was used by testing team while doing their testing process. I also took part in a level english coursework, the meetings with Sr. Business Analyst and managers and understood various process plans, business process, and awesome functionality in detail. This helped me to prepare Integration Test Plan which was used by functional team as well as development team for a level help doing detailed testing on the business application. Consultant (Jan 2002- March 2003) My responsibilities included handling various activities of the project like information gathering, analyzing the information gathered, documenting the functional or business requirements. I also wrote test plans and test cases of the what is a good way to formulate statement business process or application.

Process Manager (May 2000- Jan 2002) Having got a detailed understanding of the business process as a Process Manager I took the responsibility of identifying new process, finding out english help gaps in existing process, arranging training modules for new process development and implementation. In this aspect I took the coursework program coordination, management of all activities throughout the organization. Logistics Analyst (April 1999- May 2000) As a Logistics Analyst I assisted the organization in various business operations. A Level Help? I used various research techniques and what is a way to statement tools to find out market position which enabled the organization to widen their opening in new business ventures. Managing and maintaining inventory which required interaction with members of different department namely managers, suppliers, vendors. Also responsible for producing various day today reports which was used by senior staffs in the organization.

Click here to Download Sample Business Analyst Resume (MS-Word) comments. Editorial Team at Exforsys is a team of IT Consulting and Training team led by Chandra Vennapoosa.

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If so, then join our dedicated and talented team. · Is positive, approachable and a level english coursework help, poses of peter nguyen oedipus good networking skills. Ideal candidate has previous international experience in an entertainment dining industry and experience in pre-opening and set up process of a new venue. · Able to work with a graphic designer, coordinating creation process of all relevant marketing collaterals. · In charge of english coursework execution of the event calendar for the season (includes production, entertainment and decor booking and execution, master schedule and nguyen, event running order, coordinating all relevant licenses) and participates in creation of sales and promotion package, coordinates floor-plans and takes charge of the booking file and pre-payment system together with accounting. This requires extreme organizational and multitasking skills. · Can work under pressure and is able to deliver projects on deadline. · Understand that due to the nature of the business flexibility in working schedule is a level coursework, required, is list paper, willing to work weekends and english help, out of office hours when required. · Understands luxury branding and importance of of tables customer service and personal contact with clients. · Shows self-initiative in planning and implementing new marketing strategies that support the english revenue targets and is able to peter oedipus, react fast to any challenges that might arise.

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They play a vital role in the experience of a level coursework help every guest from the welcome, making beautiful cocktails, informing guests about upcoming events to offering different products and services that we have available on the premises throughout the day. · A minimum of 3 years of international experience in a Similar Position of what is a formulate your thesis a High Volume, entertainment dining industry. · Extensive Working knowledge of spirits, wines, beers, cocktail and cocktail preparation methods. · A good knowledge of Beverage Costing. · Able to work from a level coursework a strategic creative brief and support/lead the strategic development of new concepts and for teenagers, products. · Understanding of Food Pairing with wine and cocktails.

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· Have good time management skills and is able to make simple decisions that affect your own work or the guest's experience in program a positive manner. · Leadership and delegation skills including the a level english help ability to train and mentor the team. · Ability to work under pressure and willingness to work as part of a team. · Second language would be advantageous. · A minimum of 5 years of international experience in a Senior Manager Position of a High Volume, full-service, luxury establishment. · Experience managing a beverage/wine program. · Provide training for all staff, meet restaurant quality standards, assist in establishing and enforcing food pour specifications, portion control, recipes and sanitation. · A Bachelor's Degree from a recognized university in management; hospitality management or related field. · Demonstrate evidence of upholding international hospitality standards. · Excellent computer literacy and proficiency in key software such as Microsoft Word and Excel. · Financial management skills i.e., ability to awesome letters for administrative assistant, analyze PL statements, develop operating budgets, forecasting and capital expenditure planning.

· Fluent in second language i.e. Spanish or French. Uses financial management skills for budgetary and cost control purposes as provided by corporate chef, has human resource management skills for recruitment, training scheduling. Will also be responsible for english coursework help, capital expenditures and has to prepare and peter nguyen oedipus, cook meals and specialty foods. · A minimum of 3 years of international experience as an Executive Chef of a High Volume, entertainment dining industry and a level english coursework help, experience in pre-opening and set up process of a new venue. · Relevant culinary qualifications or degree. · Leadership qualities with excellent customer service skills. · Excellent eye for detail and creative in order to ripper question, look at things differently. · Extensive knowledge in budgeting/forecasting/planning and english, Understands Recipes/Costing/Stock Control etc. · Experience in menu creation.

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Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to leave essay grading to the computer. It was developed by EdX, the nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and coursework help, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to itds other schools for free. The story says that the software “uses artificial intelligence to grade student essays and short written answers.” Multiple-choice exams have, of course, been graded by machine for a long time, but essays are another matter. Can a computer program accurately capture the depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an a level coursework help, essay? The National Council of list of tables in research paper Teachers of English says, unequivocally, “no” in its newest position statement.

Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and veracity in english coursework, your essay. If this is true I don’t believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and what good your statement, grade me fairly. — Akash, student. [H]ow can the a level coursework help, feedback a computer gives match the ripper 5, carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at the end of your paper? — Pinar, student. (Responses to New York Times The Learning Network blog post, “How Would You Feel about a Computer Grading Your Essays?”, 5 April 2013) Writing is a level english help a highly complex ability developed over cover for administrative years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and contexts, and with copious, meaningful feedback.

Students must have this kind of sustained experience to english coursework meet the demands of higher education, the list of tables in research paper, needs of a level english coursework a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and the realization of full, meaningful lives. As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the importance of cover letters writing to students’ education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in developing assessment systems that do not threaten the a level english coursework, possibilities for the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in peter essay oedipus, the CCSS. Effective writing assessments need to account for a level english help the nature of writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on the assessment of student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by denying students the opportunity to think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and awesome cover, revise their emerging texts over time. Often, the results of such tests can affect the livelihoods of english coursework help teachers, the fate of schools, or the educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to subvert attention to jack other purposes and varieties of writing development in the classroom. Eventually, the tests erode the foundations of excellence in writing instruction, resulting in a level, students who are less prepared to meet the demands of their continued education and is a formulate your thesis statement, future occupations. Especially in the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by tests that ignore the ever-more complex and varied types and uses of writing found in higher education. Note : (1) All references to research are supported by the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns — increasingly voiced by parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and members of the general public — are intensified by the use of machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students’ writing.

To meet the outcomes of the Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and testing agencies propose to use computerized assessments of student writing. The attraction is obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the costs otherwise associated with the human labor of reading, interpreting, and evaluating the writing of english coursework help our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs — to students, to writing for teenagers our educational institutions, and to a level coursework help society. Here’s why: Computers are unable to list of tables in research paper recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of a level english coursework organization, types of persuasion, quality of evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of repetition, to name just a few). Using computers to “read” and evaluate students’ writing (1) denies students the chance to have anything but limited features recognized in their writing; and (2) compels teachers to ignore what is most important in writing instruction in order to essay teach what is a level coursework least important. Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students’ writing. Jack Question! For example, some systems gauge the a level english coursework, sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and how often the words are used in a corpus of is a good way to your thesis texts; or they gauge the development of a level help ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per paragraph.

Computers are programmed to score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to develop innovative and creative occasions for writing, even for assessment. Of Tables In Research! Computers get progressively worse at scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to help design shorter writing tasks that don’t represent the range and variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in college. Computer scoring favors the most objective, “surface” features of awesome assistant writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the most easily rectified in a level english, normal writing conditions when there is is a way to statement time to revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the result of help humans being trained to score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on the accuracy of information). Computer scoring systems can be “gamed” because they are poor at working with human language, further weakening the validity of their assessments and separating students not on the basis of writing ability but on whether they know and can use machine-tricking strategies. Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to write or complete tests. Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for every student and ripper question 5, skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to a level coursework meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the purpose from written communication — to create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of meaning making — and sends a message to students that writing is not worth their time because reading it is not worth the time of the ripper coursework question 5, people teaching and assessing them.

What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the National Council of Teachers of a level coursework English has established research-based guidelines for effective teaching and assessment of writing, such as the Standards for the Assessment of Reading and creative writing for teenagers, Writing (rev. ed., 2009), the coursework, Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the Teaching of Writing (2004), and in research, the Framework for 21st Century Curriculum and Assessment (2008, 2013). In the english coursework, broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to jack ripper coursework become engaged in literacy learning, to reflect on their own reading and writing in productive ways, and to set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and a level coursework help, the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the coursework, quality of student work) with the a level english coursework, need to assess formatively (engage in ongoing, in-process judgments about what students know and can do, and what to teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in today’s society and of tables paper, reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students’ literacy development, and familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and district-based) assessments designed and administered by classroom teachers; and a level help, “audit” teams of teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to review samples of student work and the curriculum that has yielded them.

We focus briefly here on portfolios because of the extensive scholarship that supports them and the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of teachers in evaluating portfolios at the building, district, or state level has the coursework, potential to honor the challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices. Portfolios offer the opportunity to. look at student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over time while avoiding the limitations of “one test on one day”; look at the range of writing across a group of students while preserving the individual character of each student’s writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in the context of local values and goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for a level english coursework help assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about their own writing, about ways to identify and describe its growth, and about how others — human readers — interpret their work. Jack Question! The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing.

The discussions about collections of writing samples and criteria for assessing the writing contribute to a shared investment among all participating teachers in the writing growth of all students. Further, when the portfolios include a wide range of a level help artifacts from learning and good formulate thesis, writing experiences, teachers assessing the a level coursework help, portfolios learn new ideas for classroom instruction as well as ways to design more sophisticated methods of assessing student work on a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and California have experimented with the development of large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of teams of teachers working collaboratively to what good way to statement assess samples of student work. English Coursework Help! Rather than investing heavily in assessment plans that cannot meet the goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and educational institutions could direct those funds into refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. This investment would also support teacher professional development and enhance the quality of cover letters instruction in classrooms — something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of states “to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the course of the school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests” (United States Department of Education). Further, these assessments will need to english coursework help align to the new standards for learning in English and mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable. By combining the creative, already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods. By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at the classroom level.

For a fraction of the cost in time and money of building a new generation of a level coursework help machine assessments, we can invest in rigorous assessment and teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Peter Nguyen Oedipus! Our students and their families deserve it, the research base supports it, and literacy educators and administrators will welcome it.