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Argumentative Essay Topics: Ideas, Tips, and More. Examen! You spend a great deal of to write on, education on writing argumentative essays. If you choose to examen dentaire, be a freelance essay writer, you can expect the same. In most cases, your professor or client gives a certain topic that you have to discuss throughout the essay, paper. You research, develop an argument, find evidence to support your claims, and so on. But, there also comes the examen dentaire, time when you’ll have to landscape, choose the topic by examen cap prothesiste dentaire yourself. Ethics Case! This can be quite tricky, you either can’t think of anything or you opt for examen dentaire a title that makes the entire essay writing process more difficult. While everyone wants the landscape, liberty to write about topics they choose, it is examen dentaire, essential to be cautious.
That’s why I’m going to feminist, give you some topic ideas and a few tips to write about different niches. Before we move on, in order to deliver high-quality argumentative essay every time, I suggest you read this post and learn how to create a functional outline regardless of the given/chosen topic. Let’s move on cap prothesiste, to topics, shall we? How to choose a topic for essay guestions for introductions an argumentative essay? In cases when you get to choose the topic for an argumentative essay, you have to be wise and find a title that will intrigue a reader.
You don’t, really, want your professor or client to roll their eyes because the title seems boring. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! At the same time, it should also be easy to research, that way you’ll find evidence to support claims you make. Here are some general rules to bear in mind when choosing a topic: First of all, when you have the freedom to write an essay about anything you want, the first thing to consider is how much you care about the issue. Let’s face it; if you don’t care about business ethics case studies some certain topic or don’t agree with it, you won’t do your best. On the other hand, writing about stuff we truly feel passionate about is always helpful.
Besides general knowledge you have about the topic, you won’t mind dedicating some time to research, writing process, and examen dentaire other factors necessary for the high-quality essay. For example, if you don’t care about politics, then don’t choose a political topic. If you’re passionate about economy and landscape painting finances, then go for it. What you think and how much you care about the subject always matter. Okay, this is cap prothesiste dentaire, where people usually make mistakes. They choose a topic that is too vague and find it difficult to compose a coherent essay with substance. To Make Your Essay Longer! Let’s say you want to cap prothesiste, discuss Donald Trump and effects of his victory, that’s way too vague. You’ll find yourself lost without being able to katherine, create an argument and develop it properly. On the examen dentaire, other hand, if you focus on one aspect of his victory, e.g. socioeconomic, religions, race etc. Essay Guestions For Introductions! you’ll do better.
Just like the essay writing process itself, the subject should be specific, precise, and detailed, too. Examen Dentaire! Plus, it’s going to make things a lot easier for you. The argumentative essay requires developing arguments, naming evidence, taking into essay account opposing views and examen cap prothesiste dentaire debunking them. Therefore, you shouldn’t stay away from a little bit of controversy. This is the perfect time for feminist papers you to take risks and examen cap prothesiste dentaire gain an advantage. How? Your professor or client reads tons of essay guestions for introductions, essays and a vast majority of them are written by people who like to play it safe. Your essay will be more “refreshing” and it’s needless to mention it is intriguing and a reader won’t be bored. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! To make sure your paper stands out guestions for introductions you can, also, benefit from opting for examen an unusual subject.
It can be something that others don’t discuss but it’s related to the topic you’re interested in. Of course, this requires more thorough research. You’ll highly likely come across a paper wherein someone else addressed the matter in a different manner and you can use it to get ideas and inspiration for your own. Ways Your Look! Believe in yourself and your argument. Always make sure you’re not picking some topic (regardless of how usual or unusual it may be) just to shock and dentaire get attention. You have to strongly believe in your argument. If you don’t believe in it yourself, then you can’t expect others to albrecht, do so. Basically, when choosing a topic it’s important to ensure you’re passionate about the subject, have no fear about the controversy, and you strongly believe in dentaire, argument and your own capability to write the paper. To help you out, I am going to mention a few ideas below.
Legal argumentative essay topics are popular and usually refer to laws that a writer would like to create, abolish, or change. Moreover, you can also discuss positive or negative benefits of some specific law. Although most people think they can’t or shouldn’t write legal topic because they’re not law students, that’s not correct. When writing a legal argumentative essay you don’t have to super technical. Business Ethics Case! Research the examen dentaire, subject thoroughly and use some legal expressions to studies for students, demonstrate the knowledge of the subject and that’s it. Here are some topic ideas for cap prothesiste the legal argumentative essay: At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents?
Do the business case for students, benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Does the US law system offer enough protection for victims of domestic abuse? Does Trump’s refusal to cap prothesiste, take refugees deny basic human rights to people in need? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Is the landscape, process of electoral vote fair? Online abuse should court treat it as any other kind of abuse? Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed?
Should corporations be granted personhood? Should the death penalty be abolished? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should prostitution be legal? Should the cap prothesiste, United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? Ethical argumentative essay topics. Moral or ethical argumentative essay topics are, by far, the most popular and business ethics case studies the easiest subjects to discuss. They cover a number of moral dilemmas from animal testing to cap prothesiste dentaire, the death penalty. Yes, you can discuss death penalty here is well, but from the moral point of view i.e. is albrecht thesis, this type of sentence ethical or not. Moral essay subjects are very debatable because everyone’s got different opinions and it’s easy for you to develop a strong argument. Just stick to the outline and you’re going to do great.
Here are some topic ideas: Are atheists less moral than theists? Are members of oppressed minority groups kept back by policies which encourage them to see cultures foreign to themselves as innately superior? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Are parents overexposing their children online? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? Does freedom of examen cap prothesiste, speech give people the to write essay, right to examen cap prothesiste, use hate speech? Is animal testing necessary?
Is death penalty right or wrong? Is human reproductive cloning morally acceptable? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Should hunting with the sole purpose to entertain be banned?
Should schools and businesses give more incentives for essay people to do volunteer work? Social argumentative essay topics. Examen! These topics usually overlap with ethical and legal subjects. The biggest difference here is that they deal more about how people in society act and respond to to make your longer, different factors. Examen Dentaire! For example, you can write about something that personally affects you or someone you know. It can be from catastrophic health care to negative experiences in studies for students, education, the examen cap prothesiste, judicial system, and so on. Social topics can refer to just about anything, here are some examples: Are tattoos acceptable at guestions the workplace? At what age should citizens be allowed to examen, vote in the United States? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more?
Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Excessive alcohol consumption in minors does it stem from too much freedom and landscape painting essay lack of parental control? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Is education in the US failing teenagers across the nation? Too much pressure, expensive college enrollment, bullying what can be done? Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college?
Most prisoners released on parole return to prison within 12 months is it the system’s failure? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to examen dentaire, curb men’s catcalling? Why online dating websites should be responsible for essay rapes and murders committed by members who are registered sex offenders. Advertising and media argumentative essay topics. Advertising and media evolved dramatically during last few decades thus posing as an endless source of essay topics. You can easily merge these topics with society as media has a major influence on our lives.
Argumentative essays about advertising and media usually include how media (internet, TV, news, movies, magazines) affects society, positive and negative benefits, what is acceptable or not, how to change certain aspects, you name it. Below, you can see some title ideas: Are public service announcements effective? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Do teenagers drink and smoke because advertisements make them think it is “cool” to do so? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of examen cap prothesiste, being more diverse? How “fake news” trend changes a political and social life? How do reality shows impact society? In what situations should advertisements for criticism essay alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in cap prothesiste, schools?
Is print advertising obsolete? Sex and violence on topics to write on, TV how do they change us? Should news shows talk about examen dentaire celebrities? Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime-time television? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in your essay look longer, advertisements? Spikes in examen dentaire, violence on TV co-occur with violence on the streets what can be done? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Stuck on Your Argumentative Essay?
Check out these example persuasive essays. Family argumentative essay topics. Since every family is different and our family live is influenced by a wide spectrum of factors, argumentative essay topics about this subject are numerous. That said, when writing a family argumentative essay, you should bear in business ethics for students, mind it’s difficult to generalize and cap prothesiste consider that some statements and painting rules apply to all families. If you choose this subject, you should be more specific and write about certain aspect only and conduct thorough research to make your argument. You can research about dentaire marital psychology, child development, personal stories of other families in essay, similar situations, etc. Here are some ideas: At what age should parents talk to their children about sex? Do children deserve/need an allowance? Is a child’s room really theirs, or is it their parents’? Is it acceptable for women to breastfeed in public? Is it okay for parents to monitor teens’ internet use?
Should all people who want to have kids undergo a psychological evaluation prior conceiving? Should parenting classes be compulsory? Should parents be able to spank their children? Should parents buy presents for kids to examen cap prothesiste, motivate them to study and do their homework? Should parents pay children for ethics case good grades? Should parents push their children to do things they don’t want? Should parents push their kids into extracurricular activities such as music or sports? Should single people be able to examen cap prothesiste, adopt children as easily as couples? Staying married for landscape painting the sake of children only harms them, why? Why helicopter parenting never works?
Why should all kids have certain chores on a daily basis? Argumentative essays can be fun to write as you get to develop a proper discussion and prove you’re right (and who doesn’t like that?). When choosing a topic yourself it’s always important to be wise and, thankfully, today’s society is an abundant source of all kinds of subjects. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Make sure you click on the link above and read how to construct an argumentative essay outline properly (if you haven’t already!). Now that you know how to write this type of essay, how to choose topics, you’re ready for your next assignment and ways your your professor/client will be impressed.
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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. Cap Prothesiste! First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an albrecht thesis adversarial approach. Examen Cap Prothesiste! Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in katherine my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the examen discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in practice, or even possible.
Some have argued that it is thesis nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by its proponents. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and landscape painting, a recent collection edited by Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of examen dentaire inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.
However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the client to adopt in place of the feminist essay papers dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in cap prothesiste the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in landscape painting essay the way the examen cap prothesiste dentaire client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of thinking about the ways to make means of inducing change. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of business ethics case studies for students his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an examen dentaire audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Topics To Write! Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.
Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to examen dentaire, be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to ethics case, vote for that politician, but the closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the examen dentaire therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. Essay Guestions For Introductions! She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in cap prothesiste touch with his own thoughts and essay papers, emotions and does his own healing. For the cap prothesiste dentaire art of rhetoric, the an argument essay on most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.
This technique is called restatement or saying back. Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the examen cap prothesiste dentaire therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. Painting Essay! The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the examen cap prothesiste client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and putting words in his mouth. Criticism Papers! As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the rubric of communication rather than rhetoric.
In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and examen, feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the guestions for introductions therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to cap prothesiste dentaire, that speaker's satisfaction (332). Criticism Essay! In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the cap prothesiste Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and your essay look, embittered health care consumers, and dentaire, even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an painting essay alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of view and to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. Feminist Criticism Essay! She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by showing that the writer has genuinely listened to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, the reader's position.
This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to to write on, what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and examen, a demonstration that the opponent's position is topics on understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the writer's position, including the contexts in which it is cap prothesiste dentaire valid. 4. A statement of how the thesis opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the writer's position.
If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the dentaire other lacks, so much the business case studies for students better. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and essay, without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of examen cap prothesiste dentaire writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and essay look, Pike originally recommended, when emotions and cap prothesiste dentaire, a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and thesis, his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.
This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the examen opponent he is trying to convince, but the criticism essay audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the cap prothesiste instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into practice.
Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to feminist essay papers, arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of examen cap prothesiste dentaire arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an landscape essay opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. Examen Cap Prothesiste! A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of painting essay face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! But if we are content to business ethics studies for students, relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for examen cap prothesiste dentaire, students to learn how to apply a form of topics an argument essay Rogerian principles in writing.
To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. Dentaire! This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by essay guestions finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Examen Cap Prothesiste! Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for guestions for introductions, an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of cap prothesiste dentaire another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is katherine albrecht thesis usually known as research. Cap Prothesiste! When preparing any written argument it is your essay look longer useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in cap prothesiste dentaire the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.
In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in landscape essay which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the examen dentaire original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. Albrecht! The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of cap prothesiste dentaire mutual exploration that may culminate in feminist criticism a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.
As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in examen more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the essay for introductions other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the examen dentaire first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.
This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to essay guestions for introductions, state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in cap prothesiste a way that will make them easier to guestions for introductions, attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about cap prothesiste than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to ways to make your, pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in cap prothesiste dentaire the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of for students equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.
Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is feminist papers exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the examen cap prothesiste entire class in discussing whether a particular response is albrecht genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and examen, more prompting from criticism, John, Michael eventually worked himself around to examen, identifying the values behind John's statement:
So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to essay guestions for introductions, the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to cap prothesiste, look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at landscape painting essay least he understood John's point of view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the class is over before the first exchange of views is complete. But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the examen difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.
The point of this oral exchange is katherine albrecht not so much to cap prothesiste, invent material for a particular piece of feminist criticism essay papers writing as to get the dentaire general feel of to write an argument on Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Examen! Once I think students have got the hang of essay longer this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to criticism papers, write summaries that satisfy the dentaire original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the reflected image of their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. To Write On! Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of cap prothesiste dentaire weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. Essay Guestions For Introductions! A slap on the hand prevents nothing.
If greater punishment, including real time in jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in cap prothesiste no uncertain terms the for introductions most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and examen dentaire, should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of feminist criticism papers criminals, regardless of dentaire their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at criticism papers underlying beliefs. She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for cap prothesiste dentaire, a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the essay delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in cap prothesiste dentaire Kathy's position.
The effect of the restating process was not simply to an argument essay on, soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to dentaire, improve their ability to reflect the arguments of essay guestions others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to examen, have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math.
She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and topics to write an argument, how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by examen cap prothesiste dentaire telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to essay, see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over examen cap prothesiste, the coals for her unsupported generalizations and landscape essay, unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to examen, convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by topics to write being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to examen, Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is landscape as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of examen cap prothesiste dentaire being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.
From this and years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and essay, whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by cap prothesiste girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Your Essay Look Longer! Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. Dentaire! In short, the students are applying consciously the topics to write an argument essay on reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of examen dentaire these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. There is thesis not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and could very well be inaccurate. The object of examen dentaire this part of the exercise is simply to ways your look longer, sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an example of the sort of examen cap prothesiste dentaire texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:
From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the an argument right kind of cap prothesiste makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and to write, science?
I think there are many opportunities in math and cap prothesiste, science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. But your own success in the field of katherine albrecht thesis journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!
More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in ways your essay longer which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of examen cap prothesiste view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all?
My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of landscape painting essay arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic. If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of examen dentaire another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. Albrecht! This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to cap prothesiste, use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end. Dialogic communication is essay guestions for introductions only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of examen dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in some forms of case studies triadic communication it may be desirable to cap prothesiste dentaire, underline only feminist essay papers one's own point of view.
Students therefore need to be taught a variety of cap prothesiste dentaire rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of view. Criticism Essay! Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of examen mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. Albrecht! In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an papers ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. Examen Dentaire! (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.
Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to feminist, be moved into dentaire, a more co-operative mindset by topics to write an argument essay on Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to cap prothesiste, the same reading of landscape essay Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is examen cap prothesiste dentaire always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the feminist essay nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. Examen Cap Prothesiste! But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and criticism essay, modern letter-writing practice. That structure is examen cap prothesiste as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Ways Look! Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of examen cap prothesiste invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to essay guestions, convince an opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to examen, identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in criticism essay papers effective knowledge- making.
It is a way of activating the Kantian imperative to examen cap prothesiste, pay as much attention to topics an argument essay on, others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for dentaire, living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from topics essay, feminist approaches to examen dentaire, language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to be an essay guestions for introductions ideal instantiation of examen cap prothesiste dentaire feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Business Ethics! Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of dentaire meaning over painting essay, goal-directed persuasion, the cap prothesiste building of relationships over the winning of an landscape painting essay argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.
The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at examen cap prothesiste promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Look Longer! Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on examen cap prothesiste relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. Feminist Criticism! It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Dentaire! Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.
Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to enable the client to use language as a tool of self-exploration. Even for the therapist, this is risky. To Write An Argument Essay! Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the cap prothesiste dentaire therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an topics an argument essay on attractive prospect. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the ethics case studies for students influence of General Semantics (by way of examen cap prothesiste dentaire Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of to write an argument pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to examen cap prothesiste, feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of to make look longer reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of examen cap prothesiste dentaire society because they are inclined to be emotional.
Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Katherine! Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.
This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and landscape, those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to examen cap prothesiste, gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to ethics case for students, think differently from the others they take in. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of criticism math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the examen cap prothesiste dentaire reasons for business ethics case for students, their varied choices of specialization, and cap prothesiste, their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. Feminist Criticism Essay! As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and cap prothesiste, freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and essay guestions, have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the examen cap prothesiste dentaire male students profit most from the criticism essay papers connection with others entailed by this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of their understanding of self. Examen Cap Prothesiste! I do not, however, wish to feminist essay papers, buy into the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Rather, I try to look longer, allow space for all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in cap prothesiste dentaire itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.
As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of ways your look longer view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the cap prothesiste dentaire opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of katherine thesis total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of cap prothesiste new paradigms of communication.
To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to essay, ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an examen cap prothesiste dentaire attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and katherine albrecht, place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.
I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an examen alternative model of argument. An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in society. In the papers twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in what communication is dentaire for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the ways your essay look longer underlying experiences and examen cap prothesiste, values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of landscape painting essay ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of dentaire others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to to make your, think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.
Cognition is cap prothesiste concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to papers, value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of examen cap prothesiste dentaire Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is to make your essay look longer a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and cap prothesiste, long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. Topics To Write Essay! Good rhetoric is a precondition to virtue.
This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of katherine exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to examen cap prothesiste, take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.
With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the business ethics studies differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in examen cap prothesiste dentaire the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for essay guestions for introductions, an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and its consequences. Examen Dentaire! Was that all right? I told them that it was; in essay papers reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual.
In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by dentaire a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and criticism, miserable man. Examen! The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the drunk.
This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. Ways Your Longer! But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! I have seen pictures of business case her; the one that stands out in examen dentaire my memory is her giggling in katherine albrecht my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on what happened so many years ago.
We never talk about what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of examen reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. Katherine Thesis! But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.
Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa. Examen Dentaire! I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of business ethics my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to dentaire, a stag one night. Guestions For Introductions! They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.
From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Cap Prothesiste! Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and criticism, who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about his feelings about examen cap prothesiste that night. Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and landscape essay, drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the one thing we argued about examen until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. I thought of her every day for feminist, many years, so that now the examen incident is a part of the fabric of my being.
I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to ways to make your essay, be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.
At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the examen dentaire incident until they were paired by random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.
Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and to make, with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of cap prothesiste dentaire Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.
The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is no news from feminist essay papers, Auschwitz, but there is news from examen, Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the more important news is that the power of albrecht thesis rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to cap prothesiste dentaire, heal is topics an argument essay on as powerful as its ability to persuade. It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to cap prothesiste, Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.
I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for criticism, students to make the transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at dentaire Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Feminist Essay! Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and cap prothesiste dentaire, concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.
Perhaps the main criterion for choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to for introductions, claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of examen imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the text. Essay For Introductions! That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and cap prothesiste dentaire, Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. Katherine Thesis! 1992. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Rogers and feminist essay, the teaching of rhetoric and composition.
In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and cap prothesiste, Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Ways! Indirect structure and examen, reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.
Coe, R. Papers! M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. 1990. Process, Form, and Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed.
Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for examen dentaire, Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.
Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. Feminist Criticism! 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to dentaire, traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. Landscape! New York: Harper and cap prothesiste dentaire, Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition.
College Composition and essay guestions for introductions, Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. Cap Prothesiste! 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. On! S. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Ede. 1984.
On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of landscape painting essay Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and cap prothesiste dentaire, Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?
Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Landscape! Helmbold. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans. W. C. Helmhold and W. G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Rogers, C. R. 1961. Katherine Albrecht! This is me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Dentaire! R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.
Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and D. Business Case Studies For Students! Ryback. 1984. One alternative to examen cap prothesiste, planetary suicide.
The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Landscape Essay! Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.
Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for examen, Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.
Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. L. Essay Papers! Pike.
1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the page. This is specifically for examen, you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and business studies for students, counsellors, so I'II try. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire! (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)
The world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out katherine thesis, here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to examen, your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and cook gourmet meals. But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.
If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to case for students, tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and cap prothesiste, let you stay at home and topics on, bring up babies, but the cap prothesiste cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to 30 years in the work force. On average, women earn 40 per feminist criticism essay papers, cent less than men.
Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. Examen Dentaire! We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. Business Case For Students! You have been conned into thinking that. There is no difference between the brains of men and women.
You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. If you buy the unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to cap prothesiste dentaire, be stupid. Case! There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and examen dentaire, that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and painting essay, seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for uneducated women will not exist, as the cap prothesiste dentaire computer takes over. By dropping science and ethics studies for students, mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for the future, and cap prothesiste, if that isn't frightening, consider the landscape painting economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at a conference on Women, The Law and The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from cap prothesiste dentaire, economic independence.
Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and studies, math courses, yet those fields provide one of the cap prothesiste dentaire fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to essay for introductions, make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and cap prothesiste, the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to to make essay, condemn yourself to cap prothesiste dentaire, always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.
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Tips for Academic Writing and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to albrecht thesis, eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Bednar. Rules for examen cap prothesiste dentaire, formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in guestions for introductions academic and scientific settings whenever you want to cap prothesiste, convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. An Argument. Unlike casual conversation or emails to cap prothesiste dentaire, friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured.
Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and topics essay, so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the dentaire, author's thesis clearly through words alone. Landscape. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read.
The author's time and examen, effort spent on studies, writing will be repaid with the examen cap prothesiste, time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is feminist criticism papers, clearly evident in examen cap prothesiste dentaire the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the feminist, thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again.
When in doubt, use the cap prothesiste dentaire, recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to to write essay on, the topic. At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to cap prothesiste, say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to ethics studies, cover all the cap prothesiste, relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to painting essay, tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the examen cap prothesiste, point that you promised. Stay on painting essay, topic Everything in cap prothesiste your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. Katherine Albrecht Thesis. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is that he or she wants to know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for cap prothesiste dentaire, some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to an argument on, bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. Examen. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument.
It is quite appropriate to landscape painting, discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is business, usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. Examen Dentaire. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Look. Often such opposing observations fit well just after the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in thesis the direction opposite to examen cap prothesiste, your main thesis, be careful to put it into ethics studies for students, only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to cap prothesiste dentaire, make your point as clearly as possible, while at the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in business for students your document should follow smoothly from the cap prothesiste, preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is topics to write an argument on, arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to cap prothesiste dentaire, finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper.
Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is landscape painting, if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from cap prothesiste dentaire, one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of essay how the paragraph begins and ends. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the ways your essay look longer, transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . Examen Cap Prothesiste. , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much.
In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is thesis, read and examen cap prothesiste, reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to katherine, convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at examen dentaire the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say.
If there were no miles involved, do not write of topics extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to cap prothesiste dentaire, those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in essay guestions for introductions another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to cap prothesiste dentaire, as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on business ethics case studies, the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and examen, should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation.
When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to business ethics case studies for students, see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, write concisely is ways, far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to dentaire, ensure that you write an thesis, essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to examen dentaire, fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums.
Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Guestions. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. Essay Longer. At the examen dentaire, very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the business case, author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is cap prothesiste, just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to guestions for introductions, figure out examen cap prothesiste dentaire which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.
Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Katherine. Of course, an occasional imperative in cap prothesiste parentheses is katherine albrecht thesis, not objectionable (e.g. Dentaire. (see Walker 1996 for landscape, more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is feminist essay, to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the examen dentaire, paper, and papers, (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and examen dentaire, so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and criticism essay papers, conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there.
Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an examen, independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to criticism papers, the main topic of your document; if not, either the examen dentaire, paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and essay, a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the cap prothesiste dentaire, beginning of to write an argument essay on a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. Examen Dentaire. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. Landscape. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences.
Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in business ethics case formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in cap prothesiste dentaire turn. If you could replace the thesis, comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an cap prothesiste, error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the essay for introductions, linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Cap Prothesiste. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Ways Essay Longer. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Examen. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about topics to write essay adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document.
Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to examen cap prothesiste, explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to landscape, the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in feminist criticism depth will remember those two sections the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the landscape painting, paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Examen Dentaire. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs.
Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and topics to write an argument on, 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and examen dentaire, 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on topics to write an argument on, to the examen, next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to feminist criticism essay papers, be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the papers, main points of the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, figure are also mentioned in the text of the landscape painting, article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them.
Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the examen, dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. Topics An Argument. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is feminist essay papers, replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in dentaire themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of essay it and cap prothesiste, this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?.
For such a reference to make sense, the criticism papers, object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to examen, your reference. Katherine Thesis. Often you will find that it or they refers to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in for introductions your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of dentaire several items you might be referring. Case. E.g. for cap prothesiste, the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is guestions for introductions, a good example of the dentaire, use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text.
Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of for introductions all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. Cap Prothesiste. But it is business ethics case, much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose.
But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. Cap Prothesiste. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits.
I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the landscape painting, sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only cap prothesiste dentaire be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research.
Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only ways to make your essay when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. a computer science department, the topics on, president vs. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous.
That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an essay papers, adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. Examen Cap Prothesiste. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Feminist Essay Papers. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).
Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and examen cap prothesiste, so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an topics to write an argument essay on, early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the examen cap prothesiste, hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. For Introductions. But in such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the cap prothesiste dentaire, ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity.
For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and guestions, so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. Examen Dentaire. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in feminist criticism essay the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and dentaire, I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to to write essay on, use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the papers in examen a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to criticism papers, use whichever one of the cap prothesiste dentaire, (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Albrecht. Unfortunately, you do have to cap prothesiste dentaire, pay for the APA guide, though it is criticism, now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to cap prothesiste dentaire, how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the landscape painting essay, typical format used for similar documents.
If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the examen cap prothesiste, writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and makes it difficult to painting, photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite examen cap prothesiste extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and to make your, some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Examen Cap Prothesiste. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to to write essay, discuss specific people (e.g. the examen dentaire, original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient.
Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is ways your look, like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Examen Dentaire. Davis for landscape painting, Davies), your reader will not be able to cap prothesiste, locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to ethics studies, misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and business case, triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the examen cap prothesiste, authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is ways your longer, only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the examen, title of an article when you refer to it in the text. Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in your look italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author.
If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Dentaire. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and to make look longer, should never be used as a way to avoid the examen, hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to to write an argument on, fit into examen, the main flow of the landscape painting, text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into examen cap prothesiste, a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the papers, words themselves have driven research in cap prothesiste this field. An Argument On. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the cap prothesiste dentaire, idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the to write an argument essay on, way one author expressed it.
Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in feminist criticism essay papers writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an examen dentaire, American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the business, paper A lot of examen cap prothesiste dentaire students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the case studies, authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the examen, paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to ethics case studies, be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is examen dentaire, a standard way of doing it properly.
First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to landscape painting essay, overcome those limitations. Examen Cap Prothesiste. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and studies, how you are going to cap prothesiste, do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an business studies for students, original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Dentaire. Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the topics to write an argument essay on, limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to cap prothesiste dentaire, announce only that you are planning to study topic X. Thesis. In the context of cap prothesiste research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for katherine albrecht thesis, success and cap prothesiste, no way to tell if you are getting anywhere.
Studying is something you do in essay guestions for introductions a course, where someone can tell you what to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, focus on business ethics, and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the dentaire, specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to feminist criticism papers, define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the cap prothesiste, discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to katherine albrecht, discuss all topics that the examen, audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. Topics To Write On. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and cap prothesiste, explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to landscape essay, understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of painting essay allowing people to locate the specific item of cap prothesiste reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and albrecht, title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of cap prothesiste dentaire this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing.
Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is business ethics, some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, parentheses around the feminist, part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of examen cap prothesiste parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text.
Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in essay guestions for introductions academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to examen dentaire, any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Katherine Albrecht Thesis. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work.
When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Cap Prothesiste. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to topics essay, emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the examen dentaire, whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language.
For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in painting fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an examen, en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for essay for introductions, an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in cap prothesiste dentaire life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash. Without the katherine albrecht thesis, spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by guestions putting spaces around the cap prothesiste dentaire, dash. Again, in my opinion the business case, accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at examen cap prothesiste dentaire the place they were heading to. However, in ways essay look practice it is often very difficult and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, awkward to reword sentences to painting, avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best.
Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on criticism, using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g.
Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to dentaire, the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to to make your longer, that is, and e.g. translating to cap prothesiste dentaire, for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the to write an argument essay, flow of the sentence, and examen, modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to topics to write, Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree.
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essay on dentaire, drugs abuse The term drug abuse most often refers to the use of a drug with such frequency that it causes physical or mental harm to ways your look, the user. Although the term seems to imply that people abuse the drug they take but rather it is themselves they abuse by using drugs. In an article I read on the internet titled, “Adolescent Drug Abuse.” it was stated that “Nigerians participate heavily in international drug trafficking. One study found that 65 percent of the heroin seized in British airports came from Nigeria. The Abuse of Prescription Drugs Essay. physicians to question the wide spread use of this drug, the examen cap prothesiste, main fuel to this problem’s fire is the drug’s addictive nature. Essay Look Longer? Some medical journals have reported that “between four percent and twenty-six percent of those who take opioids for long-term pain treatment become addicted” and this addiction leads to the abuse of the drug. Depressants and stimulants, although not as deadly as opiates, are the two other classifications of misused prescription drugs. Depressants are prescribed to treat anxiety.
I am only telling this story because it will show what prescription drugs can do to you. In short I later found that my husband had been taking a combination of drugs. Examen Cap Prothesiste Dentaire? Once the feminist papers, air cleared and we spoke to one another I found out he had taken five es Vicodin and examen cap prothesiste, 15 Ritalin all within a 14 hour period. Essay Look? Now this may not sound like a lot to everyone but to me it began to explain the behavior I had seen growing over the weeks leading up to this devastating night. The fact of the matter is my husband. about the dangers of examen dentaire, taking prescription drugs that don’t belong to them could save their lives. Painting? Teens and young adults have chosen prescription drugs as their drug of choice because it is cap prothesiste dentaire less expensive as illegal drugs like cocaine or marijuana, and more easily accessible. Katherine? All they need to do is walk into their own bathroom and cap prothesiste dentaire, look into feminist papers the medicine cabinet.
It’s sitting in plain sight for the taking. They don’t realize the danger of taking prescription drugs that were not prescribed to cap prothesiste dentaire, them. Ethics Case Studies For Students? They. The majority of their time is spent thinking about examen dentaire, drug usage. They plan their usage carefully and choose their friends based on the availability of drugs. Then the aspect of painting, denial becomes integral. Addicts make excuses to use. Any excuse is examen cap prothesiste valid, It could be because they are sad or mad, lonely, depressed, made a bad test grade, are in trouble with the albrecht thesis, authorities, had an argument with a girlfriend or parent or a teacher until they find a way to get high.
The abused substance often doesn’t. Also when teenagers are addicted to drugs, their social life greatly affected. Examen Cap Prothesiste? If you use drugs your brain function will decrease and so you can never achieve what you wanted to do. You can never become a doctor or a lawyer, a teacher or even a good parent. You may also loose your job. The most famous and recent example is what happened to topics an argument, the mayor of Toronto. Cap Prothesiste? Because the mayor of Toronto used drugs, he might loose his position at papers City Hall.
According to Warawa :”No member – no member of examen cap prothesiste, our city. College Students and Drug Abuse Essay. students to feminist, think that taking these drugs is normal. At Columbia University, a student even went as far as to say that “the culture here actually encourages people to dentaire, use stimulants,” (Jacobs 2) Doctors have been seeing a rising amount of young adults who have claimed to criticism essay, have an attention deficit disorder in order to obtain medications to help them in college. Dentaire? Another leading cause of drug abuse is “the belief that drug abuse or the non-medical use of guestions for introductions, any drug will not have long-lasting effects. are three categories of abuse: low-intensity, binge, and high-intensity. Cap Prothesiste? People who are low-intensity usually swallow or snort their meth to help them with weight loss, or to finish a task. Painting? Those said to examen dentaire, be binge abusers smoke or inject there’s with a needle allowing them to feel the rush stronger and faster than if they were to snort or swallow it. Ethics Case Studies For Students? Typically, binge meth users turn into high-intensity abusers in which they just have to keep taking it.
Most substance abuse begin in childhood or the. Drug Abuse and Addiction Essay example. Then, teenagers put upon by drug dealers for earning money. This circle pull prospective addicted. All in all there is many reasons to become drug addicted. The drug addiction induces substantial problems such as social, criminal and health problems. Drug addicted lose touch with life mentally and they can’t take responsibility, can’t make good relations and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, communications with their connections and can’t take care of their family. That means addiction bring social problems. Another problem is.
Youngsters take drugs for katherine albrecht thesis many different reasons. The literature review attributes that youngsters engage in drugs because of peer influence and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, family problems such as a broken home, as well as other important variables such as lack of religious beliefs and just a way of dealing with stress, anger or frustration. Others use drugs because they perceive taking drugs as a new, interesting or exciting experience. Interestingly, existing data show that teenagers because in rural areas use drugs less compared. Essay on topics an argument essay, Drug Abuse and Trafficking. Illicit drugs don't come shoddy nonetheless. In this manner, the abuser now may fall back on criminal intends to fund their freshly discovered wanting. Cap Prothesiste Dentaire? Most regularly, abusers at this stage begin to take from their own family unit to store their new pastime (Inciardi, 45). The middle stage is the middle stage.
At this point, the abuser has gotten to be completely addicted to the opiate drugs. At this stage, any sort of drug would be desirable over him/her rather than no drugs whatsoever. Essay on criticism, Pharmaceutical Drug Abuse. no effects. She stated “A pill can have a totally different reaction on you than the person who it was prescribed for. So a drug that is okay for someone else could be dangerous to you.” A common way for teens to access different kinds of drugs is to throw a “party”. The parties are typically called skittles parties. Each teen will bring some kind of pharmaceutical drug and they will dump.
College Students and Drug Abuse Essay. It is very likely that the dentaire, drug problems in African countries will worsen in future unless more effective measures are implemented to arrest the current situation. Landscape Painting Essay? Introduction Drug abuse is defined as . excessive or inappropriate use of a [psycho-active] substance by cap prothesiste, a person ; such use being considered or judged to business ethics studies for students, be illegal (immoral) by the culture and cap prothesiste, resulting in harm to the person or society [ 1] . Painting Essay? In defining the phenomenon , therefore , the cap prothesiste dentaire, key determinant is the perception of society. Adolescent Drug Abuse and its Effects Essay. relationships and drug use are related. According to Andreas Schindler, and other researchers, mothers and fathers have a great impact on topics essay on, their child’s behavior. There are an excess of cap prothesiste, parents who are preoccupied and do not have time for their children, and there are others who cannot support them. This leaves the ways your essay longer, children to have less discipline in examen, their life, making it more likely for them to use substances. There are also parents who are fully supportive and studies for students, their children still use drugs, but it is. Drug Abuse and the Reasons Why Essay. Also I believe that people start to cap prothesiste, use drugs whether illegal or legal to escape something that they have gone through or are going through that they don’t know how to deal with.
What are some of the reasons why some people start using drugs you might ask? A common reason that people start using drugs is due to landscape essay, family issues. Sometimes there are issues that a person is going through that they don’t know how to deal with and cap prothesiste, are looking for some type of way to escape the reality of it. “The. American Drug Abuse Essay examples. According to thesis, the National Survey on Drug Abuse conducted in examen cap prothesiste dentaire, 1997 and criticism essay papers, 1998, more than one-fourth (28.2 perecent) of the cap prothesiste, youth aged thirteen to thesis, eighteen report that marijuana experiences, and about four percent used cocaine, 1.1 percent admits to using heroin, and nine percent used inhalants. These statistics are about the same as the statistics in examen dentaire, 1992 and 1993. Youngsters take drugs for many different reasons. The literature review attributes that youngsters engage in drugs because of peer influence and.
Essay on The Affects of ethics, Drug Abuse on examen dentaire, Society. Drug addiction would be impossible without a vulnerable person. Some life experiences can lead a person to search for a release from physical and emotional pain. A death of a loved one or a feeling of worthlessness, such as bankruptcy is enough to make a temporary high fill an emotional void. Mendelson and Mello explain how drug addicts have difficulties “establishing and ways to make your look, maintaining emotional intimacy with others and often feel alone and isolated” (as cited in Hirschman, p. 157). These characteristics. Essay Arguments of Drugs and Alcohol Abuse. Isaiah where it says, “The Israelites choose to drink; their future looks hopeless to them.” Isaiah 22:12-13. Examen? Another writing shows us that “Drinkers seek their own gain and expect tomorrow to be just like today”. Isaiah 56:9-12. Experimenting with drugs or alcohol is a gamble for everyone.
The question is often raised as to when does addiction start? The answer is all around us, we just have to open our eyes and look for it, starting with our youth. As a teen, although the signs may be there, they. Cause and Effects of Teen Drug Abuse Essay. tobacco regularly, drink and get drunk regularly, and katherine albrecht thesis, use marijuana regularly than teens that are better supervised” (Teen Drug Abuse 28). These teens that are less likely to be supervised are using drugs more. “Unsupervised adolescents report a greater interest in trying illegal drugs that do teenagers who have a parent home to cap prothesiste dentaire, greet them when they return from school” (Teen Drug Abuse 28).
Not having rules in criticism essay papers, the household affects the child and not communicating with them about examen dentaire, their dreams, conflicts. The Rise of Drug Abuse in Hong Kong Essay. education as well. Ethics Case Studies? Most of the examen, schools haven’t realized the seriousness of the criticism essay, trend of teenage drug abuse, therefore, they pay little attention and resources on educating students about drugs. Some brand name schools deliberately avoid discussing the examen dentaire, topic of drug with students. They think if they put too much emphasis on painting, drug education, the public may wrongly interpret that students from their school are drug abusive. In order not to affect the reputation of the school, they avoid the topic.
Many. Essay on Reducing Drug Abuse in the United States. million children were living with at least one parent that suffered from examen cap prothesiste dentaire addiction when this survey was done. (Drug Addiction Facts and Statistics) Below is a graph that shows the percentage of drug of choice for addicted Americans. These numbers were gathered together in feminist criticism essay, 2011. (DrugFacts: Nationwide Trends) (DrugFacts: Nationwide Trends, 2012) WHO IS AT RISK? A key factor in reducing drug addiction is to prevent it. This is cap prothesiste dentaire made possible by knowing who is at feminist essay risk for examen cap prothesiste becoming a substance user. Adolescents. Dont Get Me Started on Drug Abuse Essay. Damage to the brain cells is another side effect of drugs, which results in a deterioration of memory. In social aspect, Young people who take drug will find it difficult to concentrate on their studies as they need to deal with the ever-growing desire for drugs. Eventually, it will affect the academic result of the drug user and that they will resist attending school.
Another side effect of drug abuse is losing consciousness. Unintentional words or actions may hurt others’ feelings. In the long. Psychological and topics to write essay, Physical Aspects of Drug Abuse in Adolescent Communities. lead to dentaire, dependence of the drug (T.J Crowley, 1998, page 57). Statements such as “everybody is doing it” or “it will make you feel good” highly influence middle school and topics an argument essay on, high school students. Usually at the time that the dentaire, drug is being offered, potential users do not think about the harm this drug can cause in the future.
Marijuana is also very popular in today’s community because adolescents are turned off by the harder drugs and believe that pot is topics essay on not a gateway drug that may lead to more lethal. Mandatory Drug Testing in High School Helps Prevent Drug Abuse. Many of the drug users in America are candidates for cap prothesiste having a disease. The most common disease amongst users is the landscape painting essay, AIDS virus. Examen Dentaire? Maryland and Baltimore are two cities that have many users carrying this disease. In Maryland forty-two percent of the topics to write an argument essay, AIDS cases are drug related and in Baltimore, seventy percent are drug related. Drugs are the leading instigators of negative lifestyles. Examen Dentaire? By having random drug-testing, public health will become better.
From recent studies, the schools that do partake. Essay The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. when speaking was that he was frightened by crack because of topics to write essay, availability and affordability of it to youths. Rangel brought forth the idea of the crack epidemic before Congress. Examen Dentaire? This gave Congress a reason to essay guestions for introductions, support and later approve the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. After the Act was introduced to examen dentaire, Congress, the fact that none of the African-American Congressmen brought forth the idea of racial discrimination, in topics essay on, Kennedy’s words, “speaks volumes”. Examen? Kennedy noted that these same Congressmen had.
Drug Abuse Correlation to Child Abusee Essay. loss, which may explain why many abused children forget their abuse soon after it happens (Panzer, 2008). Painting? The amygdala’s primary job is to filter and interpret incoming sensory information in relation to the individual’s survival and examen cap prothesiste dentaire, emotional need and then help initiate the proper response. The amygdala assists us in being able to ways longer, take quick action when faced with a dangerous or threatening situation (Glaser, 2000). Ongoing abuse causes the amygdala to alert us to danger even when a threat does. Essay Harmful Effects of dentaire, Drug Abuse During Pregnancy. annually, found that on average 11 percent of pregnant women used heroin, methadone, amphetamines, PCP, marijuana, and, most commonly, cocaine.
The researchers estimate that each year, as many as 375,000 infants may be affected by their mothers' drug use. Dr. Barry Zuckerman and his colleagues at the Boston University School of Medicine and Boston City Hospital conducted a study of 1,226 women who gave birth at the hospital between 1986 and 1988. Of this group, 27 percent had smoked marijuana, Essay on Tour de France Drug Abuse. open. Landscape Painting? (Fife 201-202) Each day of the tour, new incidents occurred: police rough handling, fresh revelations, dismissals and strikes. After two days of questioning, most of the nine riders had admitted to some level of involvement with the Festina drug program. Some, like Meier and Alex Zulle, confessed to knowingly using EPO. From that time on, the Tour de France became a very divisive and a very controversial topic in the French media.
It was in the headlines of newspapers and a major subject. The transistor was at work in the computer by 1956. Coupled with early advances in magnetic-core memory, transistors led to second generation computers that were smaller, faster, more reliable and more energy-efficient than their predecessors. 1 | CompaniesOne of the most famous men in the discovery of the transistor was William Shockley, for which he won a Nobel Prize.Shockley set up a company near San Francisco, in an area that eventually became known as Silicon Valley, and he employed many. About 43 percent of all Americans have experienced alcoholism in their families and one in examen cap prothesiste, eight Americans is the child of an landscape essay alcoholic. Thy grow up with or married an alcoholic or a problem drinker, or had a blood relative who was an alcoholic or a problem drinker. Examen Dentaire? Excessive drinking exacts a heavy toll on family life. Of the estimated 19 million adult are problem drinkers, about painting, 8 million of dentaire, them are alcoholics, and business ethics for students, almost half of them are women. It is not unusual to see a pregnant woman drinking. Essay on Prescription Pill Drug Abuse.
Common Symptoms of addicts are different depending on what one addict is used to the dependent is usually going through what people call withdrawals and when one stops taking pills it is no longer receiving that effect of the chemicals that they are used to indulging in. So someone stopping would most likely be very irritable, unable to sleep, and examen, even for the worst addicts you may have heard of people experiencing seizures. The most common abused prescription medicines are in places that are not. The argument of the case was related to the possibility to an argument, make an exception concerning the Controlled Substances Act prohibitions. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative implied that marijuana is medically necessary for cap prothesiste a definite group of people and the USA’s government considered this to be a violation the Controlled Substances Act.
The “degree” of marijuana’s necessity in medical purposes was point that caused the majority of the questions throughout the case. The Court was supposed to essay longer, “solve the. It is a common symptom of alcohol abuse. Examen? * Myth: I can’t be an alcoholic. I only drink wine or beer. Fact: While hard liquor is guestions more concentrated, wine or beer will have the same effect.
You will just be drinking more of the examen dentaire, wine or beer. * Myth: Drinking is not a “real” addiction like drug abuse. Fact: Alcohol is a drug, and alcohol abuse is every bit as real as drug abuse. Alcohol addiction has serious long term health and legal consequences, and withdrawal can be deadly. Why. nonsense. The boy was traumatized for a very long period of time. To summarize, the act of child abuse lead a 7 year old child to think about committing suicide. It is so sad to know the case, amount of people that are on drugs due to child abuse. Treatment of drug use is cap prothesiste dentaire a complex problem, however within time it can be resolved. Did you know that as many as two-thirds of all people in treatment for drug abuse report that they were physically, sexually, or emotionally abused during childhood, research. Substance Abuse and Pregnancy Essay.
This enabling causes a constant craving for the drug that can lead to further abuse. Drugs commonly take over the limbic system of an painting essay individual and create mass amounts of examen dentaire, dopamine that can cause intense feelings of essay guestions, euphoria (“Gateway Foundation”). While the mother is enjoying the high of whatever substance she has chosen, the substance is examen causing other physical changes in criticism papers, her body. The physical effects of substance abuse are extensive. Depending on the substance, a person can experience a multitude. Essay on Adhd and Substance Abuse. study demonstrated that children who started stimulant treatment early, had the examen cap prothesiste dentaire, least chance of abusing drugs or alcohol ion adult years. On the other end, children who started stimulant therapy later, in the eight to twelve year range, became more likely to papers, abuse drugs, especially cocaine. Another aspect of the study described that in some of the children who abused drugs, their substance abuse behavior was mediated by cap prothesiste, antisocial personality disorder. This finding alone demonstrates a negative side. industries that should be required to provide a drug free workplace policy with drug testing.
Industries with safety concerns such as construction, manufacturing, protective services, and other service industries should require testing to avoid workplace accidents that could potentially harm the employer or other employees. Other industries that have higher incidents of katherine thesis, workplace drug abuse should also be required to provide a drug free workplace policy with drug testing. The following industries that have. However, this did not stop the U.S from examen dentaire increasing its restrictions on illicit drugs. The Marijuana Tax Act of business ethics for students, 1937 made possession or transfer of cannabis (and hemp) illegal throughout the United States under federal law. Following Cannabis, Cocaine, Crack Cocaine, Methamphetamine, LSD, and Heroin became drugs that were gaining popularity throughout the country. The Narcotic Control Act was passed in 1956 in response to the results of a nationwide investigation of narcotics trafficking and use in. 1993; National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, March 1998 The greatest cost of drug uses is paid in human lives. Drug related deaths remain near historic highs 9,300 per year. Around 8% of people in Australia aged 16-85 years have had a drug use disorder (including harmful use/ abuse and/ or dependence) in their lifetime. (Australian Institute of cap prothesiste dentaire, health and welfare 2011). Most categories of illegal drugs (illicit drugs) are rated as “easy” or “very.
Partnership for Drug-Free Kids Partnership for drug-free kids is a non-profit organization funded by the federal and private contributors. Landscape? They support and cap prothesiste, generosity of the funder and funds with the program in fundraising appeals. Eighty percent goes to the program for families. The operating budget is 8.8 million into more than fifteen its impact. This program educates kids and landscape essay, families the importance of being drug free and different ways to live a life as such. This program has been around, serving. distinction between abuse and addiction, Clinton (nd) describes there is a fine line; this transition progresses from the mind “obsessing” about the use (abuse) to the body “needing” the examen, drug (addiction).
Doweiko (2012) indicates that the user can initially begin to abuse opiates to feel good, feel pleasure, and receive feelings compared to a sexual orgasm (p. 152). Moreover, the user may not anticipate the rapid ability to move from abuse into to make your look longer physical addiction or dependency on this drug. He (2012) postulates. about poverty. The study found that those that live at cap prothesiste dentaire 200% or more of the poverty level, as well as those that live below 200% over the poverty level, attribute the major cause of poverty to drug abuse (NPR, 2001). This survey also revealed that those who live under 200% of the poverty level attribute drug abuse as the katherine, leading cause of poverty at examen a higher rate than those who live at 200% or more above the topics an argument essay, poverty level; “when asked what is the No. 1 cause of poverty , low-income. also had harmful effects such as people using the drug simply for medicinal intentions were not on the wrong area of the law. In 1937, congress started a further act which cited a tax on the use of marijuana.
By 1951 nevertheless, with the route of the Boggs act, a quantity of substances were illegalized and cap prothesiste dentaire, aloof heroin from the katherine, list of substances that may possibly be used for medicinal purposes. During the 1950’s the society’s apprehension for drug related issues continued to augment, resulting. Tax Act. The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act established the dentaire, Federal Antidrug Policy in 1970. In the late 1960s recreational drug use became customary among young, white, middle class Americans. As their drug use became common, the social disgrace that was previously associated with drug use diminished. Katherine Thesis? (Thirty Years Of America'S Drug War, 1995-2913). Examen Cap Prothesiste? As stated by WebMD, LLC (2005-2013), “the use of illegal drugs and to write on, the use of prescription drugs for nonmedical purposes are.
program designed actions to examen, accomplish the program goals, the program implemted new curriculum to accomplish the goals. In 2007, a new curriculum for pertocipatopm in case studies, drug abuse and over the counter drug abuse was created by D.A.R.E. .The program adopted their Penn State university “keeping it real” middle school curriculum in 2009 . the curricu;um isam evidence based curriculum listed on examen cap prothesiste, the National Registry of Evidence Based Program and Practices(NREPP). This program was created for children from. end to the drug use in Canada and also worldwide. Feminist Criticism Papers? In the year 1908 the Canadian government passed a law called “the Opium Act of 1908” and examen cap prothesiste, also “Proprietary and Patent Medicine Act 1908”. “ Proprietary and Patent Medicine Act 1908” was to case studies for students, probate the use of cocaine in medicines and requiring pharmaceutical companies to list on the label the examen dentaire, ingredients of landscape painting essay, any medicine if heroin, morphine, or opium was part of the cap prothesiste, contents 3. Prescribed drugs and recreation drugs 3.1 Prescribed Drugs The majority. Essay on Alcohol Abuse in Teenagers. The survey was conducted by an organization called the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Stress can lead to alcohol abuse in teenagers, but there are many other ways to cope with stress besides drinking. Getting a good night’s sleep, taking a break once in a while, and talking about feelings are all great ways to deal with stress. Teenagers must deal with stress everyday, and guestions, everyone deals with stress a bit differently. Cap Prothesiste? For some, drinking relieves stress, but it is extremely dangerous to their.
Essay on to make your essay, Drug and Alcohol Addiction. 2008). Drugs and alcohol addiction can cause incidents of domestic violence. Several studies can support this claim. One research study claimed that up to examen cap prothesiste, fifty percent of all batterers attending a treatment program had alcohol abuse problems (Reyna, 2008).
Some drug addicts have the best interest at heart. They will try to stop when they realize their substance abuse is out of control. However, the attempt to essay, stop ends up a failure due to the individual has an illness. The use of drugs is a. punish, or expose those who use drugs, but to save their lives and discover abuse problems early, so that they can grow-up and learn in a drug-free environment (Walters, J.). Examen Dentaire? I believe that utilizing drug courts is the most effective way of dealing with substance abuse users. For example, my uncle in the past has struggled blatantly with drug problems. Unfortunately, my aunt passed away and he is now a single father of four beautiful children.He has used many different drugs, which led to him being arrested. The Omnibus Drug Enforcement, Education, and Control Act of 1986 was introduced to stiffen penalties for pushers, increased customs and border patrols, outlawed synthetic drugs, and improved treatment and prevention programs.
The illicit drug trade market is the second largest business in the world, bringing in over 500 billion dollars a year. The government has gone in and waged war against Columbian drug lords. Marijuana became the most popular drugs, due to the rise in usage, the federal.
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Custom Effect of Morphine on Receptor Cells of the Lungs essay paper writing service. For a long time, the cancer patients have been subjected to severe pains at some stages of their illness and especially during the last days of their life. This has resulted to the search of a solution to cap prothesiste dentaire, the prolonged suffering of these patients. Over many years, the use of several methods resulted to a variety of results. These patients suffer particularly from difficulties in breathing coupled with a lot of pain: a condition commonly known as Dyspnea. This was the major reason for the use of morphine as a nebulizing agent in the treatment of the topics to write essay cancer patients, who experienced severe pain in the course of their treatment. The use of morphine and the degree of effectiveness has proven to be to the patients to whom it was administered, however, has experienced a wave of examen cap prothesiste criticism from a section of the public, who feel that it should not be completely adopted due to its side effects on the patients. This paper examines how morphine works on the receptors in the lungs. Katherine. It also addresses such issues as the dentaire benefits, the cost and topics to write an argument on the side effects brought about by the use of morphine as a nebulizing agent in treatment.
Cancer Pain Management. The pain associated with the advanced stages of cancer patients is very severe and in some cases unbearable. Research has established that an average of 86% of the cancer patients wills eventually succumb to the disease. This is a very big number that cannot be taken for granted. Other than the shortening of breath being the main cause of the pain experienced by these patients, some other causes of suffering include the examen cap prothesiste numerous surgeries that are conducted during the treatment of the landscape patients. An approximated number of 75% of the cancer patients at the advanced stages of dentaire disease experience severe pain (Apolone et al. Feminist. 28). The good news, however, is that about 90% of these pains are manageable through the application of drugs such as morphine. Mode of Application.
Morphine is administered to cancer patients orally for cap prothesiste those, who are capable of swallowing. Due to ethics case for students, the bitter taste associated with morphine, it is mixed with the examen food that is then given to the patients, who find it hard to deal with the bitter taste. For the advanced cases of cancer, which involves the patients who are no longer capable of receiving the tablet orally, morphine is administered through direct injection into guestions, the blood stream. For oral administration of morphine, the drug exists in tablets that can either be taken directly or crashed into examen dentaire, a powder form depending on the preference of the patient. The morphine contains an approximate measure of 0.5 milligrams of pentahydrate in every milliliter of morphine. The other component of morphine is ways your usually sodium chloride, which accounts for about 9 milligrams in every milliliter of examen morphine. Effect of Morphine on Receptor Cells of the Lungs. The solution retrieved from morphine usually is void of any form of bacteriostat or any antioxidant. A single dose of an argument injection of this solution to a patient usually delivers analgesia through a path of intravenous as well as the epidurals or even through the intrathetical.
The effects of morphine are mostly concentrated on various receptor cells in the body of these patients, including the central nervous system as well as most of the examen cap prothesiste tissues in the various organs of the body that are characterized as smooth tissues. Essay For Introductions. For the cancer patients, the receptor cells in the lungs are one of the major areas that receive the effect of morphine administration directly. These receptors are usually located on the upper surface of the lung lining. The receptor cells in the lungs and in other tissues of the body are widely known as the “ u receptors” . Examen. Even though the lungs and other organs in the body hold a very large share of the receptor cells, the vast majority of landscape painting them are located in the central nervous system where they are distributed in areas such as the examen thalamus, the hypothalamus and other sites of the brain. The spinal cord also contains a great number of the receptor cells. These receptors provide a site for binding with the chemicals present in morphine to give the desired result, as well as the undesirable effects of morphine. These receptor cells due to business case, their various properties speed up the effect of morphine and are the focal point of the dentaire administration of landscape this drug as a pain reliever for the patients in their advanced stages of cancer therapy.
They result to the effect of the morphine to examen cap prothesiste dentaire, be felt as soon as 15 minutes have elapsed from the time of administration to the patient. Most of the opioids including morphine play the role of the agonist as they undergo the ways to make essay look process of binding with the receptor cells of the brain as well as the organ tissues. When morphine is dentaire administered exogenously, it goes forward to play its role and delivers its analgesic effect by changing the common releases from the feminist essay papers neurotransmitters from those that are sensitive to the nerve control to those that react commonly, according to stimuli. Cap Prothesiste. As a result, some effects such as excruciating pain, which is normally experienced by criticism papers these patients due to the shortening of breath, is usually reduced to a minimum level. The strong feeling of pain is dentaire usually first received by the vast network of nerve cells in the receptor cells.
It is then transmitted to the central nervous system of the brain, which interprets it as pain, and feminist criticism essay this is felt in the various organs of origin of the transmission nebulizer morphine that acts by reducing the transmission of the pain by the receptor cells and thus the pain is not easily felt by the patient. The transmission of the autonomic reflexes of the dentaire nervous system is not directly influenced by the administered morphine. However, morphine usually triggers some effects also known as spasmogenic. These are directed to the gastrointestinal channel and eventually lead to a reduction of the peristaltic effect, which causes contraction of the muscles as well as the tremors in the muscle, which are constant source of feminist criticism papers severe pain for the cancer patients, who are in the advanced stage of cancer therapy. The influence of the sulfate component of morphine on the central nervous system is further driven by the capacity of this drug to cross through the barrier that exists between the brain and the blood. These sulfates are able to by-pass this boundary and offset their effect from the blood, in which they are contained, to the nerve system in examen, the brain. The use of morphine to treat the to write an argument essay on late stages of cancer has been of significant help to these patients.
Even though a variety of people in the society dispute the use of morphine and other narcotic drugs such as medical marijuana, cocaine and examen dentaire other opioids, the best chance that these people have towards a bearable life is the use of these drugs. The drugs have many side effects but the relief they give the patients is katherine albrecht impressive enough to justify their use. As a result, the use of morphine can be based on examen humanitarian grounds as compassion is one of the key attributes in the medical fraternity. The patients normally encounter agonizing pain due to the variety of factors. Some of these include the guestions pain from the multiple surgeries that the cap prothesiste cancer patients undergo so as to remove the malignant tumors.
The other cause of the painting pain is associated with the difficulty arising from shortness of examen dentaire breath. These two factors result in severe pain and the best chance the patients have in reducing these pains is the use of morphine as well as other opioids. The advanced stages of cancerous pain do not respond to your look longer, even the strongest painkillers in the medical laboratories. Even though there might be other proffered methods of treating cancer patient that prove to be of more rewarding results than the use of morphine, none of these methods solve the issue of pain encountered by these patients. Cap Prothesiste. The freedom of choice should be exercised as some of the patients prefer the use of morphine to treat the agonizing pain they undergo. The best thing that the medical team can do is to advise the painting patients on the various treatment options they have as well as all the benefits and side effects associated with these methods of treatment. Cap Prothesiste. The final decision should be left to the patient as he or she is the principal victim.
The use of morphine to treat the cancer patients has also proven to be of rewarding benefits in term of mood alleviation for the cancer patients. These patients are known to experience mood improvements after morphine has been administered to them. Even though there are people arguing that treatment with morphine can eventually lead to depression, there is no proof that morphine is the ethics case actual cause of the depression. Other factors, such as the possibility of the imminent death, could be the reason for the depression. However, the effect of analgesia is not normally felt at the instance of application.
There is cap prothesiste dentaire a period of feminist criticism delay of about 15 minutes before the dentaire onset of the effect of nebulized morphine on the cancer patients. The cause of this delay is the low solubility associated with morphine after the intrathecal, as well as the epidural, injection. The other reason for the delay experienced after the administration of topics to write an argument essay morphine is its tendency for a slower access towards the sites where the receptor cells are located. As result, the pain effect may persevere for a little longer until the analgesia effect reaches its full adoption. However, once the effect has been taken into the central nervous system, it will be retained for a very long period depending on the type of dentaire morphine that has been administered. A very small dose of morphine can last up to on, a minimum of 4 hours while still having its effect felt by the patient.
Better still, some morphine applications last a maximum of 12 hours (Husic Ljuca 200). The chemical composition of morphine is the main cause of the long-term effect it has. They contain some hydrophilic components, which aid in the retention of the morphine in the central nervous system and slow release into examen cap prothesiste, the circulation system thus achieving an for introductions effect that is cap prothesiste more prolonged (Jales et al. 112). Side Effects of Morphine as a Nebulizing Agent. Various institutions conduct research to weigh the advantages to the disadvantages regarding the use of ways to make your longer morphine. These organizations have conducted research on other opioids that are aimed to reduce the pain for cancer and hospice patients. The results suggest that even though the use of cap prothesiste morphine to reduce pain has widely been prescribed by most medical institutions, its side effects compel a closer examination and search for alternative treatment methods.
One of these researches produced evidence linking the use of morphine, as well as other opioids to the increase the growth of cancerous cells. Katherine. This has led to the conclusion that the examen cap prothesiste dentaire use of opioids can stimulate cancerous cells to grow faster, and business case as a result lower the life expectancy of a patient. The research also found out that morphine and other narcotic drugs are commonly involved in the hastening of death among the patients, who receive it as a therapeutic treatment. Due to application of the drugs and dentaire subsequent growth of opioids receptor cells, there is a reduction of the life expectancy of a patient (Flemming 64). The patients, who received the alternative form of treatment that involved the use of drugs that prevented opioids sensitivity, developed some mutations that protected them from topics to write on, this sensitivity. As a result, they survived for a longer period of time than their counterparts who received morphine treatment. The studies found out that there were a larger number of receptor cells for the patients who received their treatment with morphine and other opioids, as compared to the patients who received treatment that prevented their sensitivity to opioids (Krc%u030Cevski-S%u030Ckvarc%u030C 212) The revealed number of examen dentaire these receptor cells is in a progressive trend in the lungs, as well as other organs that developed cancerous cells. The use of morphine can result to an addiction especially considering that it is a narcotic drug with a very high tendency for addiction.
Some patients have developed a great psychological overdependence on the morphine after a long period of usage. The use of morphine can also result to tolerance in which case the essay current level administered to the patient becomes none-effective and consequently higher doses need to be applied. This alone can be a major cause for addiction. Physical dependency is a situation, in dentaire, which the body becomes withdrawn in the case, where the application of the drug is suddenly stopped. It is another threat posed by the use of essay guestions for introductions morphine as a therapeutic drug. Examen Cap Prothesiste. The patients, who develop physical dependant addiction or tolerance, may need the help of a professional through a long period to overcome these effects. Some situations involve allergic reactions of patients if there is the use of morphine and other narcotic drugs due to the production of a chemical known as histamine (Flemming 98). Other common side effects associated with the topics essay on use of morphine and other opioids in the treatment of the shortening of breath for cancer patients include constant vomiting as well as nausea.
These effects come about by the stimulation effect caused on the zone that triggers chemoreception. Other side effects include diarrhea, seizures, hallucinations, fainting, blurred vision, skin rashes as well as throat tightness that causes swallowing hardship. Cost of Using Morphine. Research suggests that the use of morphine is more cost-effective that alternative methods of treating patients in severe pains at examen dentaire the advanced stages of cancer. The cost of using administered morphine with implantable pumps is much lower than that of using alternative treatment methods. Research reveals that the painting use of the implantable pumps for treatment can sustain a patient for a range of 12 to about 18 months more than the use of alternative methods. However, this estimate is used when the dentaire consideration of the cost of replacing the implantable pumps is not taken into account. These lower costs together with the effectiveness demonstrated by the use of morphine have made it one of the most suitable treatment methods for business case for students cancer patients. However, further analysis brings out the fact that even though the examen cap prothesiste cost of treatment of cancer patients may be lower than that of case studies using alternative methods of treatment, the net cost may be surprisingly higher than the expected cost. This is because the implantable pumps may have to be replaced constantly and considering their higher cost, they may even double the estimated expenses. Addiction to examen dentaire, the drug is one of the major causes of the increase in the cost.
Patients, who get addicted to the opioids, may need to be taken to the rehabilitation centers, where they can spend a lot of time depending on the level of addiction. An Argument. This will eventually lead to examen, an increase in feminist, the price of treating a single patient, as the cost of rehabilitation is very high. The good news, however, is that there are insurance companies that cater for the cost of morphine rehabilitation and thus the cost can still be lower. The cost of using morphine to the point of addiction is viewed on a wider scope rather than just the monetary portion. This is because addiction to morphine may lead to the loss of some of the most important relationships that a person has built over a long period.
This may be caused by the snit-social behaviors that a person develops due to addicting, such as withdrawal from the community; a person becomes more and more obsessed with satisfying his drug addiction. Other cause of an overshooting of this cost may result from the development of examen tolerance to katherine thesis, this drug by the patient. In such a case, the amount of morphine used to relieve the pain encountered by examen the patient may have to be increased further. This will eventually increase the to write an argument on cost of treatment depending on the level of cap prothesiste tolerance developed. Overdependence on the drugs to such level of to write on displaying withdrawal symptoms may also lead to the increase of the use of the drug and growth of the cost of treatment as well (Flemming 105). Buy Effect of Morphine on Receptor Cells of the Lungs essay paper online. I am not at all disappointed by the output from writer #9834. He is simply amazing. David S., Canberra, Canada. Thank you for the extraordinary work that your writer #2827 did on my thesis.
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